Developing Intelligent Contracts with VSCode and IBM

AMA/Tutorial: Run a full node on AWS free tier with local LAN storage

AMA/Tutorial: Run a full node on AWS free tier with local LAN storage
This is a tutorial/AMA on how you can be running a full node, in the AWS cloud, for very low cost or even free.
I used to run a node on my local network but there is a problem with this; your public IP is broadcast, and then it gets associated with Bitcoin. Node owners are likely to own Bitcoin, and this raises your personal threat profile, validated against my IDS/IPS logs.
Run a VPN? Many VPNs are automatically blocked, or sketchy. Tor is also blocked on a large portion of the internet. Neither provide you with a real static IP, and that helps out the network.
There is a easy solution to this; run a node on the AWS free tier, and use an elastic IP so you have a static address. Bandwidth is free in, and low cost out, and you can control how much of that you use easily, and control your spent. The problem is that Amazon charges a LOT for online storage and even with a 1MB blocksize, the blockchain is very large and growing steadily! We mitigate this by using a VPN back to your network, where you can store the blockchain on a SMB share.
It is not complicated to do, but there are very many moving pieces to keep track of and configure. In order to fully trust your node, the best way is to build it from scratch. This is my goal in walking you through the process.
There are lots of ways to accomplish this same task; I only want to present one that works, and you can go from there. Once you have access to the blockchain in the cloud for reasonable prices, you can also look at things like the Lightning Network.
This article makes four major assumptions:

  1. That you have a OpenVPN server on your network and know how to configure it. I use pfSense and OpenVPN; others will work just as well, but you'll need to do a little work to figure out the particulars. If you don't know how, do not fret! There are loads of good tutorials for just about every platform. Or ask below. I also limited the user with access to the share at the firewall specifically to the IP hosting the share to lower the threat envelope.
  2. That you have the blockchain downloaded locally and reasonably up to date. If you don't, head on over to bitcoin.org and download it for OSX or Windows or Linux, whatever you use for your workstation. Follow the directions to set up the software and download/synchronize it to the network. This will take awhile! Once you've synchronized, copy the data directory to your SMB share you want the AWS instance to access. You could also synchronize everything directly on AWS too, but it will likely take longer and may cost a bit for the bandwidth.
  3. That you're on windows. OSX and Linux will have slightly different processes to connect to the instance via the terminal and SSH. If you need help, ask, and I am sure we can get you fixed up.
  4. That you've read the excellent bitcoin.org full node tutorial here: https://bitcoin.org/en/full-node

With that, on with the show!
First: Head on over to https://aws.amazon.com/ and make yourself an account.
Once you've set up you'll need to start the process of creating a virtual machine on AWS. Look for this graphic and click on it:

Start by launching a new machine

Follow the rabbit hole, and you'll be looking to create a plain jane Amazon AMI Linux instance. It looks like this:

Pick the basic AMI instance
Keep in mind you want to pick the x86 version, which is the default.

Continue clicking, you'll want to select the t2.micro instance that is eligible for the free tier for new accounts.

Pick the free tier. You can also upgrade to the smaller tier for more ram, but the micro works for now.
Now, you're going to need a way to connect to your soon-to-be-created node in the cloud. Amazon uses SSH keys to do this, so the next step means you're going to make some. You need to save this file, as if you lose it, you won't be able to access your node anymore. Much like your wallet private keys!

Beware losing your keys!

If you've made it this far, you're almost launched!
Now we need to convert the key to a format that we can use to connect to the instance from Windows. I recommend using Putty! https://www.putty.org/ if you don't have it already; if you're on OSX or Linux, you likely have what you need already.
Follow the guide here to get connected: https://docs.aws.amazon.com/AWSEC2/latest/UserGuide/putty.html

Next you'll need to set up a opening in the firewall if you want incoming connections. This is done by adding to the security group in the "Network and Security" section; edit it to look like this:

Change the inbound security rules for the instance to accept incoming connections on 8333.

The hard part is over!
Optional: Configuring a static IP. Amazon calls their implementation "elastic" IPs, but it's really a static IP that you can move around between instances very easily. It will ensure your public address on AWS does not change; it isn't required, but it is better if you intend on allowing outgoing connections.
Go back to the main dashboard display.
In "Network and Security", click on "Elastic IPs".
Select Allocate New Address (blue button on top) and then select it in the table. In actions, you will see "Associate Address". Select this then assign the address to the instance you have previously configured. Done!

Next up: Log into your machine, and immediately update everything. Use the IP provided by Amazon, or the Elastic IP if you assigned one to the instance in the last step.
type: "sudo yum update"

Now, let's get the VPN configured.
First step is to install OpenVPN. We need to install the extended package library to do this.
type: "sudo amazon-linux-extras install epel"
type: "sudo yum-config-manager --enable epel"
Now you can install OpenVPN.
type: "sudo yum install openvpn"
You will need your credential file from OpenVPN; it's a file you generate that will have a .ovpn extension. But you're going to need to upload it to the instance. You can do this through the scp command on OSX or Linux, but if you're on Windows, you'll need another utility. Get WinSCP here: https://winscp.net/eng/download.php
But we'll have to tell it where your key file is so you can login. Select "New Session", then use the same IP and username as you did to connect before. We'll need to tell it about the key file though! Select the "Advanced" tab then under the SSH section, click on "Authentication" and then select your private key file you generated in the tutorial above.
Connect and upload the .ovpn file that you generated when you added a user for the VPN. This step depends on your OpenVPN configuration - ask below if you have problems.
Next, let's verify we can connect to the VPN!
type: "openvpn --config my-configuration-file-made-by-openvpn.ovpn &"
You will be prompted for a password if you configured one.
Verify operation by pinging your LAN router, e.g.
type: "ping 192.168.2.1" or the address of the SMB server where you shared the information.

Allllrighty! Next up is getting connected to your blockchain. Create a directory where the data directory will be mounted.
type: "mkdir blockchain"
We need to install samba and some utilities to get things mounted.
type: "sudo yum install samba"
type: "sudo yum install cifs-utils"

Now let's mount the folder:
type: "sudo mount -t cifs //192.168.2.100/Bitcoin ./blockchain -o user=bitcoin,vers=2.0,uid=ec2-user,gid=ec2 user,file_mode=0777,dir_mode=0777"
Where " //192.168.2.100/Bitcoin" is the address of the SMB server and share where you put the data directory from your initial sync. If you didn't, and just want to sync everything from AWS, then make sure it's a folder where your user has access. In this case, I'm assuming you've made a SMB user with the name "Bitcoin". The command will prompt you for the password to access the share. The other bits ensure you can have read and write access to the share once it's mounted in AWS.

Now we're ready for some Bitcoin! Props to the tutorial here: https://hackernoon.com/a-complete-beginners-guide-to-installing-a-bitcoin-full-node-on-linux-2018-edition-cb8e384479ea
But I'll summarize for you:
Download and then re-upload with WinSCP, or download directly to your instance with wget, the most current Bitcoin core. In this case, it's bitcoin-0.18.0-i686-pc-linux-gnu.tar.gz downloaded from https://bitcoin.org/en/bitcoin-core/.
Let's verify it hasn't been tampered with once you have it uploaded to the terminal:
type: "sha256sum bitcoin-0.18.0-i686-pc-linux-gnu.tar.gz"
Then compare that with the hash value that's listed in the SHA256SUMS.asc file on bitcoin.org. In this case, "36ce9ffb375f6ee280df5a86e61038e3c475ab9dee34f6f89ea82b65a264183b" all matches up, so we know nobody has done anything evil or nefarious to the file.
Unzip the file:
type: "tar zxvf bitcoin-0.18.0-i686-pc-linux-gnu.tar.gz"
There is a warning about a symbolic link; everything seems to work OK regardless, but if anyone knows what or how to fix, please comment.
We'll need to get some missing libraries before we can run it; these aren't in the basic AMI instance.
type: "sudo yum install glibc.i686"
type: "yum install libgcc_s.so.1"

FINALLY! We are ready to launch the program. Go to the "bin" directory inside where you unzipped the Bitcoin Core tarball. (e.g. /home/ec2-useblockchain/bitcoin-0.18.0/bin)
./bitcoind -datadir=/home/ec2-useblockchain/data
You will see the program either start to sync and download, or start to read the existing blockchain file that you put in the share from before.

Congrats!

There are a couple extra steps to have it automatically start on reboot, but let's see if anyone gets this far first. I use the "screen" program to do this, but there's also a daemon mode, and some other functionality that is discussed in the hackernoon tutorial.
The primary cost will be outgoing bandwidth. AWS charges $0.10/GB beyond 15GB; You can limit the outgoing bandwidth easily according to your budget: https://bitcoin.org/en/full-node#reduce-traffic

Hope this encourages people to try running a free, or very low cost, cloud node, with a substantially reduced threat profile.
submitted by xtal_00 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Groestlcoin Release September 2018

Introduction

As always, the past 3 months since 22nd June have been crazy busy. The bears might still be around, but the show must go on and of course has not slowed the Groestlcoin development team in the slightest. Here’s a quick overview of what has already happened since the last release: - Integrated into the bitbns exchange, with the ability to buy Groestlcoin directly with the Indian Rupee. - Groestlcoin Rebrand Vote – Whilst there was much talk and push for a rebrand vote, the overall result was almost unanimously in favour of keeping our unique and conversation-starting name. With just 83 votes to Rebrand, and 2577 votes to No Rebrand. Thank you for all who voted, the funds raised are being used to fund ongoing hosting and development costs. - Integrated into the Cryptobridge exchange. Cryptobridge is a popular decentralised exchange where you always hold the private keys to your funds, only YOU have access to them. - Groestlcoin has been added to SimpleSwap – Groestlcoin can now be swapped with over 100 other cryptocurrencies, without signing up! - Groestlcoin has been added to UnoDax, one of the leading cryptocurrency exchanges in India, with TUSD, BTC and INR trading pairs. - Groestlcoin has been added to SwapLab.cc, where you can buy Groestlcoin using Bitcoin and over 50 other altcoins. Purchasing with VISA/Mastercard is coming VERY SOON. Discussed later: - Groestlcoin has been listed on #3 largest exchange in the world on volume, Huobi Global! More on this to come further on in the announcements. - Groestlcoin has been added to the Guarda Multi-Currency Wallet. - Groestlcoin has been added to Melis Multi-Device, Multi-Account, Multi-Platform, Multi-Signature advanced wallet! Already this list is far more than most other cryptocurrencies have achieved in the past 3 months. But this is just the tip of the iceberg of what has been developed.

What's been Happening?

GRSPay Released

We are so excited for this, that it has it's own separate reddit thread. Head over there now at https://www.reddit.com/groestlcoin/comments/9ikr5m/groestlcoin_releases_grspay/? to see more on this!
https://www.melis.io/assets/logo-navbar-4b6f0d372f15b2446d3fa4c68f346e4fb08ee113941186cee58fd6135f3f8b7d.svg

Melis Wallet

The the most advanced wallet for Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Litecoin and now Groestlcoin.
With Melis you have the complete control of your bitcoins and private keys, you can define spending limits policies and make use of two or more factors authentication. Melis is open source, published on GitHub.

How Melis Works?

You can create as many accounts as you want. An account is a part of your wallet that can be customised to your requirements. You can choose how many co-signers are required to spend funds. The accounts are completely independent and act like separate wallets from each other but can be accessed via the same details. A core feature of Melis is the ability to set a ‘primary’ device. With this you can set an account as ‘Secure’ so it is only viewable (and accessible at all) from the Primary device. You can have a savings account hidden from the outside world whilst also having your ‘spending’ funds available on the go. With Melis you can create a multi-signature account between N people, where up to N signatures are required to sign a transaction, choosing if any of those should be mandatory.
Core Features:
https://guarda.co/assets/images/1PGo4ID.svg?1537791124643

Guarda Wallet

Safer than ever! Desktop Light Wallet - Anonymous and fast!
With Guarda Multi-currency Desktop Light Wallet you don’t need to register. Guarda has no access to your private keys or funds. You can receive, send, store, buy and exchange cryptocurrencies in complete anonymity and safety. All these features are available on Linux, Windows or MacOS. Choose the one that suits you!
More info about Guarda wallet on www.guarda.co
https://holytransaction.com/images/logo.png

Integrated into HolyTransaction

What is HolyTransaction?

HolyTransaction gives users access to the crypto world with a universal cryptocurrency wallet and instant exchange.

Features

For more information, visit Holy Transaction here.
https://www.groestlcoin.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/09/next-grs-groestlcoin.jpg

Integrated into NEXT Wallet

What is NEXT?

NEXT is a modern, next-generation stylish open-source Desktop wallet.

Features

For more information, visit NextWallet here.
https://blockchainfinancial.com/mediaserve2018/09/admin-06143647-bcf_logo_vec_256x256.png

Integrated into Blockchain Financial

What is Blockchain Financial?

Blockchain Financial is a set of web based services for individuals and companies that want to make things happen with the Cryptocurrencies Ecosystem. - For those that don't know anything about cryptocurrencies, we offer tools that will let them receive, send and operate with an assortment of coins. - For those that are already riding the wave, we offer tools that will let them do all those things that they weren't able to do.

Blockchain Financials mission

We're not here to reinvent the wheel. We're here to make it run smoother for you, and we provide some of the most useful services you'll find on the internet, made in a way that is easy to understand and use on a daily basis. In short, we're a bunch of people that claim to be Crypto Evangelists. We strongly believe in cryptocurrencies, and our main promise is to push them up so more people get involved and take all the advantages they offer.

More information from Blockchain Financial

Back in 2014, the world was taken by storm when Facebook approved the first cryptocurrencies tipping apps. The first was for Dogecoin, and the second was for multiple coins.
The project was hosted on whitepuma.net, and persisted for almost two years, built up a massive user community and gave a home to Bitcoin, Litecoin, Dogecoin and dozens of other bitcoin-based altcoins.
After very active months, the tipping hype started to fade away. Then, the developers decided to jump into the next stage: bringing not only tipping, but also mining and a widget that could be embedded on websites to allow everyone to accept payments. Sadly, the work was never completed because the project started to require an unsustainable amount of resources. Then, in a painful decision, a shutdown was announced by December 2015.
A couple of months after whitepuma.net was closed, the source code was released by its creator as Open Source on GitHub. But it wasn't maintained.
Now, some of the original members of the dev and admin teams gathered up with a handful of the WhitePuma's elite users, and decided to make something good with the best pieces of the old source code. That, with fresh new ideas and the power of the BardCanvas engine, synthesized the core of Blockchain Financial.
More info about Blockchain Financial wallet on .
For more information, visit [Blockchain Financial](www.blockchainfinancial.com)
https://www.huobi.com/image/logo.aeb4723.svg

Groestlcoin Listed on Huobi

Who are Huobi?

Huobi was founded in China and is now based in Singapore, with offices in Hong Kong, South Korea, Japan and the North America, currently sitting #3 in volume on Coinmarketcap. Huobi is a great leap forward for our growing presence in Asia and we are very excited to be listed here!
You can find the official Huobi announcement here.

Groestlcoin Core v2.16.3 - Please Update ASAP

A new major Groestlcoin Core version 2.16.3 is now available for download which includes both a Denial of Service component and a critical inflation vulnerability, so it is recommended to upgrade to it if you are running a full Groestlcoin node or a local Groestlcoin Core wallet.
v2.16.3 is now the official release version of Groestlcoin Core. This is a new major version release with a very important security updates. It is recommended to upgrade to this version as soon as possible. Please stop running versions of Groestlcoin Core affected by CVE-2018-17144 ASAP: These are 2.13.3 and 2.16.0.
As a result in this, all exchanges and services have been asked to upgrade to this version, so please be patient if wallets go in to maintenance mode on these services.

What's new in version v2.16.3?

This is a major release of Groestlcoin Core fixing a Denial of Service component and a critical inflation vulnerability (https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2018-17144) exploitable by miners that has been discovered in Groestlcoin Core version 2.13.3 and 2.16.0. It is recommended to upgrade to 2.16.3 as soon as possible. If you only occasionally run Groestlcoin Core, then it's not necessary to run out and upgrade it right this second. However, you should upgrade it before you next run it. If you know anyone who is running an older version, tell them to upgrade it ASAP. Stored funds are not at risk, and never were at risk. At this time we believe over half of the Groestlcoin hashrate has upgraded to patched nodes. We are unaware of any attempts to exploit this vulnerability. However, it still remains critical that affected users upgrade and apply the latest patches to ensure no possibility of large reorganizations, mining of invalid blocks, or acceptance of invalid transactions occurs.

The Technicals

In Groestlcoin Core 2.13.3, an optimization was added (Bitcoin Core PR #9049) which avoided a costly check during initial pre-relay block validation that multiple inputs within a single transaction did not spend the same input twice which was added in 2012 (Bitcoin Core PR #443). While the UTXO-updating logic has sufficient knowledge to check that such a condition is not violated in 2.13.3 it only did so in a sanity check assertion and not with full error handling (it did, however, fully handle this case twice in prior to 2.1.0.6). Thus, in Groestlcoin Core 2.13.3, any attempts to double-spend a transaction output within a single transaction inside of a block will result in an assertion failure and a crash, as was originally reported. In Groestlcoin Core 2.16.0, as a part of a larger redesign to simplify unspent transaction output tracking and correct a resource exhaustion attack the assertion was changed subtly. Instead of asserting that the output being marked spent was previously unspent, it only asserts that it exists. Thus, in Groestlcoin Core 2.16.0, any attempts to double-spend a transaction output within a single transaction inside of a block where the output being spent was created in the same block, the same assertion failure will occur. However, if the output being double-spent was created in a previous block, an entry will still remain in the CCoin map with the DIRTY flag set and having been marked as spent, resulting in no such assertion. This could allow a miner to inflate the supply of Groestlcoin as they would be then able to claim the value being spent twice.
Groestlcoin would like to publicly thank Reddit user u/Awemany for finding CVE-2018-17144 and reporting it (https://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-core-dev/2018-Septembe000064.html). You deserve gratitude and appreciation from cryptoworld, and you have ours. If you want to support him for his work, please consider donating to him on his bitcoin cash address: bitcoincash:qr5yuq3q40u7mxwqz6xvamkfj8tg45wyus7fhqzug5
http://i.imgur.com/3YhyNZK.png

Groestlcoin Electrum-GRS 3.2.2 - Ledger & Trezor Edition

What is Electrum-GRS?
Electrum-GRS is a lightweight "thin client" groestlcoin wallet Windows, MacOS and Linux based on a client-server protocol. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for multi-signature wallets and not requiring the download of the entire block chain.

Changes:

http://i.imgur.com/3YhyNZK.png

Electrum-GRS Mobile Android

What is Electrum-GRS Mobile?

Electrum-grs is a lightweight "thin client" groestlcoin wallet Android based on a client-server protocol. Its main advantages over the original Groestlcoin client include support for multi-signature wallets and not requiring the download of the entire block chain.

Changes

Groestlcoin EasyVanity Released

Groestlcoin EasyVanity is a Windows app is built from the ground-up in C# and makes it easier than ever before to create your very own bespoke Groestlcoin address(es), even whilst not connected to the internet! You can even generate multiple keys with the same prefix and leave it on overnight whilst your CPU or GPU collects and stores these addresses locally.
If you're tired of the random, cryptic addresses generated by regular groestlcoin clients, then Groestlcoin EasyVanity is the right choice for you to create a more personalized address.

Features

• Ability to continue finding keys after first one is found • Includes warning on startup if connected to the internet • Ability to output keys to a text file (And shows button to open that directory) • Ability to make your match case sensitive (Where possible) • Show and hide the private key with a simple toggle switch, and copy the private key straight to your clipboard • Show full output of commands • Includes statistics whilst the application is running • Ability to choose between Processor (CPU) and Graphics Card (GPU) • Automatically detects 32 or 64 bit systems • Features both a Light and Dark Material Design inspired Themes • EasyVanity's search is probabilistic, and the amount of time required to find a given pattern depends on how complex the pattern is, the speed of your computer, and whether you get lucky. • EasyVanity includes components to perform address searching on your CPU (vanitygen) and your OpenCL-compatible GPU (oclvanitygen). Both can be built from source, and both are included in the Windows binary package. • Prefixes are exact strings that must appear at the beginning of the address. When searching for prefixes, Easyvanity will ensure that the prefix is possible, and will provide a difficulty estimate. • The percentage displayed just shows how probable it is that a match would be found in the session so far. If it finds your address with 5% on the display, you are extremely lucky. If it finds your address with 92% on the display, you are unlucky. If you stop EasyVanity with 90% on the display, restart it, and it finds your address with 2% on the display, your first session was unlucky, but your second session was lucky. • EasyVanity uses the OpenSSL random number generator. This is the same RNG used by groestlcoin and a good number of HTTPS servers. It is regarded as well-scrutinized. Guessing the private key of an address found by EasyVanity will be no easier than guessing a private key created by groestlcoin itself. • To speed up address generation, EasyVanity uses the RNG to choose a private key, and literally increments the private key in a loop searching for a match. As long as the starting point is not disclosed, if a match is found, the private key will not be any easier to guess than if every private key tested were taken from the RNG. EasyVanity will also reload the private key from the RNG after 10,000,000 unsuccessful searches (100M for oclvanitygen), or when a match is found and multiple patterns are being searched for. • Free software - MIT. Anyone can audit the code. • Written in C# - The code is short, and easy to review.

Groestlcoin Sentinel (Android & Blackberry) – Mainnet + Testnet

What is Sentinel?

Groestlcoin Sentinel is the easiest and fastest way to track/receive/watch payments in your offline Groestlcoin Wallets. Groestlcoin Sentinel is compatible with any standard Groestlcoin address, BIP44 XPUB (Extended Public Key) BIP49 YPUB and BIP84 ZPUB
Groestlcoin Sentinel is a great solution for anyone who wants the convenience and utility of a hot wallet for receiving payments directly into their cold storage (or hardware wallets). Sentinel accepts XPUB's, YPUB'S, ZPUB's and individual Groestlcoin address. Once added you will be able to view balances, view transactions, and (in the case of XPUB's, YPUB's and ZPUB's) deterministically generate addresses for that particular wallet.

What's New?

The P2SH paperwallet supports creating P2SH paperwallets in bulk, keypair generation with QR codes and sweeping tool. Groestlcoin believes strongly in privacy, the live version does not collect and store IP or transaction data.
Changes
Features
The BECH32 paperwallet supports creating BECH32 paperwallets in bulk, keypair generation with QR codes and sweeping tool. Groestlcoin believes strongly in privacy, the live version does not collect and store IP or transaction data.
Features
![WebWallet](https://i.imgur.com/Z2oj7bj.png)

Groestlcoin Web Wallet Update 1.4

What is Groestlcoin Web Wallet?
Groestlcoin Webwallet is an open source, multisignature, HD Wallet and more! Webwallet is a a open source browser based Groestlcoin webwallet.
Webwallet is a playground for Groestlcoin in javascript to experiment with. It supports multisig, OP_HODL, RBF and many more. Groestlcoin believes strongly in privacy, the live version does not collect and store IP or transaction data.
Changes:
submitted by Yokomoko_Saleen to groestlcoin [link] [comments]

Blue Beelzebub (Final)

Link to Part 1
Link to Part 2
Mortaren’s appointment had left a slim window through which to prep. As a freelancer, I was free to travel across the country or the world for a story, so time off from work wasn’t an issue that vexed me. I opted to fly to Denver then drive I-25 to Walsenburg - a city to the east of the San Luis Valley and a spot my travels made familiar over the years. By week’s end, after a numbing but uneventful commute, I reached the comfort of my hotel days in advance - I wanted that buffer to breathe and to reconnoiter the site of our meeting.
The coordinates pointed to a site too remote for satellites to remap every year. Neither Google nor Bing ever sent cars there to photograph the area. The drive through US-350 was monotonous - mile after mile of farmland parched a uniform yellow. The only excitement, if such were the word, came from the prompts the GPS indicated which eventually took me onto a gravel road.
The route crossed a railroad. To my right was a farm. To my left was the overlook - a weathered and wizened hump of earth a geologist told me had been the remnants of a butte millions and millions of years prior. It stood by itself amid seas of grassy plains. A road lurched onto its peak; there the earth had been pressed into a level (and empty) lot. It felt like the safest place to stop, (hopefully), out of sight and out of mind.
My rented Wrangler was the sole vehicle at the overlook.
For a while I gazed westward. The sky was a vibrant shade of blue that smothered the distance. Across its haze I caught outlines of the Spanish Peaks. I let my eyes wander southward, toward that spot at the horizon where US-350 vanished into a point. I couldn’t see a car anywhere coming or going. A train roared as it approached from the side of the highway.
Eastward and below - at what I gauged may have been a spur of the historical Santa Fe trail, I noted the ruins that had drawn me onto that spot. It had escaped my eyes when I drove by it and then, then I realized why. It was at the top of the overlook that the effect was appreciable. The ruins, through the years, had been smothered to its roof by an orchard of junipers.
The ruin was that of a two-story house which had been built partially into the ground. I gawked at the style of it for it appeared so out of time, so out of place when compared to the architecture typical of the area around La Junta. The closest match was Spanish Colonial. The eeriest aspect of it was that in spite of the juniper’s swallowing it, it didn’t look like it had been abandoned for any lengthy period of time.
I approached the door - a slab of wood impressively resilient to weather - and stuck my head into the shadow beyond its yawning threshold. Its walls were tagged with an eclectic mixture of symbology, some of it Satanic, some of it native. Others defied my erudition.
As I grew bold enough to enter, my advance was stopped by a voice.
“Yeah, figured you’d check it out.”
“Mortaren?” I turned to face the orchard, whose miasma cloaked the figure. “Wanted to see it for myself. Doesn’t strike me as a place to stash a server.”
“Exactly.”
Mortaren, my erstwhile host, stepped out of the enshadowment and joined my stance at the door’s threshold. I sensed by the immediate familiarity he conveyed to the structure that he wasn’t a stranger to its curiosity. I followed into the abode and almost immediately choked at a waft of putrefaction - urine and feces from sources unknown. Squatters - or worse - I started to suspect may have sought the refuge of its confines. Still, Mortaren was not concerned.
Nor was he curious about the freshly-minted tools strewn about the rubble. Gear that I recognized from my years of hiking had been folded into the mess as if to disguise it. I detected, too, the odor of gasoline - faintly and sublimely - as if it were a suggestion stirred by the train that passed by.
“It hasn’t been a residence since the seventies.”
“Well if that’s so, it’s a mix-up.”
“No! Little of the sort, bub, this,” he said of it, swinging a finger around his head toward the upstairs, “this is the spot. Everything that happened, happened here. All of that was filmed where we stand. ZuZu or whomever they worked for, they chose this site not for the way it looked outside but inside. Then ZuZu embedded those clips of it into the code.”
“Is it booby trapped?”
“In a manner of speaking.”
We worked past the foyer and the library that followed it. We walked: Mortaren at the front and I at the back. Could it be doubted anymore? My host splayed intimate knowledge of the abode which could have come only from a personal investigation. How many times had he stopped by? Perhaps he more than stopped by? Perhaps he more than investigated.
We entered a wide, tall hallway and paused. The chamber was pitch except for a window at the apex of the stairs which blasted a square-shaped spotlight onto the floor at our feet. Behind us the hallway emptied into a kitchen. Light that filtered through its windows lent it a vibrant, green glow. A glow that came from the vegetation clogging that chamber. I noted flickering, whistling lights like fluorescents out of view but not of earshot.
Mortaren refused my help to unroll a tarp; “touch nothing, nothing - don’t leave a print anywhere, kiddo, you gotta trust me, OK”. He revealed a set of tools: pliers, machetes, rakes, and a crowbar. My host took the crowbar and aimed it at the stairs. “Let me give you a word of warning - if you insist you want that game - alright more, more than a word. Yes - I got it. And I’m far from the only sucker, let me say. I suggest, whatever you do, you don’t ever install it, you don’t ever play it, you don’t even stick it into a drive that autoplays, OK?”
We ascended; the stairs were droopy and I struggled to stay upright.
“Not saying that ‘cause of what it’ll do to your rig - you know what it’ll do, I don’t need to tell you what it’ll do. It’s the sort of stuff that’ll bring the FBI to your door faster than you can say Blue Beelzebub. No, damn it, it’s how that abomination tears into your soul. It’ll compromise you and that’s intentional not accidental. It wants to beat you into submission. The fear - that you’ll be found, that you’ll be trapped - imagine every day, every day thinking ‘today’s the day it happens’. It took a year to convince the FBI I didn’t know what that game was about and then it was too late to save my arse.”
Upstairs, my host drew my steps into a chamber whose walls were a faded memory of yellow. Cracks formed like veins running the heights of the walls. The reek of corruption, like that of decay, attacked us fiercely. A hum issued out of the air; it was strongest at the center where the rug that cloaked the floor bulged.
Mortaren applied a streak of coroner’s salve to his upper lip. I added a dab to my face. My host insisted I should be thorough; so I complied.
The chamber was a formal salon, a pit of “opulence and decadence” for the 70s. Furniture lay scattered to rot. An armoire, as tall as the salon, waited at the far end with its doors wide, agape almost like arms outstretched to greet us. It, like the rest of the furniture, soaked the elements and charred into onyx as if burned. Slowly my eyes accustomed to the ambiance and as such I grew cognizant of a trove of esoteric details. Books strewn about. Mounds of salt. Blobs of candles. Pentagrams. All of that competed head-to-head with the scratches etched into the walls.
I found a fingernail embedded into those scratches....
“After I posted the demo, a fan - let’s say they were a fan - contacted my office about it. They offered assistance and I, reluctantly out of curiosity - I complied. I sent them copies of the game. That was my downfall, kiddo.” He stopped to take a breath. “Imagine it. The stuff of nightmares that destroys a man’s life fits so perfectly into a pair of three point five inch floppies. Well, that fan reverse-engineered the executable. Dude sent everything right back to my house with a stack of paper. Never heard of them again. I assumed they were the first to contact the FBI. Can’t blame ‘em.”
Mortaren pointed to the rug that spanned the floor.
“Is that hum under the floor?” I asked - he nodded.
“The sound isn’t from the server, though.” Mortaren lifted the corner of the rug with the crowbar. We cleared the furniture and rolled away the carpet. It decomposed into rubble just by touching it as we did. “It’s a crazy layout. The house was built over a shaft. This room it’s, it’s right over that shaft. The hum comes from the way air works through it.”
“So ... the server is real and it’s here?”
My host nodded; “The game’s cloak and dagger - a virus that turns your rig into a zombie. You work for them, now, now, you’re part of something worse than anything you imagine. The events that created this mess, this wreck that you see - it was filmed right where we stand. ZuZu transferred the footage to AVI clips and used it to create the maze’s layout and texture. My fan, when they broke apart the game, they found the clips embedded right into the code and I had to watch ‘em, didn’t I? I had to watch ‘em. Look, it’s not over, OK. The ritual they started, it doesn’t end, it doesn’t, ever, end.”
I dared not ask what kind of ritual it was. The gaze of his eyes as they relived the video spoke volumes. His whole entire body shook as if the violation were fresh.
“I tell you the strangest part of this business. The people who started it, they’re a crazy kooky sex cult out of NAZI Germany. Yeah, they used Crawley’s sex-magik. They never touched kids, though. It wasn’t about the Cheese Pizza for ‘em. But the Chinese Sandwich wasn’t any better.”
We walked into the center of the salon, to a spot where the rug had bulged. Removed, we saw what it was. A circle had been drilled into the wood and plugged by plate like a manhole.
Mortaren lodged the crowbar into the crack at the circumference of the plate.
“You’ll never get it until you see it from their perspective. Twisted as it is. You gotta see it through their eyes. The game exists to re-create the ritual - to recreate the ritual and make you part of it. Simply by watching it, by playing it, you get tainted and that by itself makes you part of it. Damn it.” He tapped the crowbar to the plate that refused to budge. “Haven’t I tried? It’s not enough, is it? Am I too old, at the end? The server.... It’s at the end of the shaft, a hundred feet below. I donno how it’s powered. Maybe it’s geothermal? I donno. It’s there, idling, watching and waiting for a signal to awaken. It’s what sustains the game and the spreads the ritual. It’s the heart of the beast.”
###
Cheese Pizza and Chinese Sandwich, to those not aware of 4CHAN and its vernacular, is code for ‘Child Pornography’ and ‘Child Snuff’, respectively. ZuZu and LVN used the dog-whistles of their day to advertize the game to a certain clientele. But the cult that bankrolled Blue Beelzebub abhorred the former as it embraced the latter. And the game itself contained tedious 90s shock - glimpses of death and its like - it never showed the goods, so to speak.
The CD contained the augmented DOS the game installed as well as a thorough, documented unraveling of the game itself. Mortaren’s fan discovered and saved BMPs and AVIs that had been embedded into the code. I slipped that CD into a drive and scanned its contents with my virus and malware checkers. Not a single program detected a problem. Given the sizes of the files, though, I found it disconcerting that my checkers took minutes to complete.
Mortaren’s fan had placed their deconstruction of the game’s executable into a ZIP folder. The majority of it consisted of code that they converted from binary to ML to C. It was fascinating to gawk as the code which appeared so professional. Yet, as C was not a strength of mine, I found it vague and cryptic overall.
I dug into the multi-media directory and extracted images and clips that had been stored there. Saved to my laptop, I selected the largest AVI and played it. That film, whose sights and sounds were equally vivid and jittery, oozed the impression of an 8 mm production. It had been subbed in German and I (mostly) followed it.
Mortaren got it right - the clip had been filmed at the house by US-350, specifically, at its salon. I paused to check the layout and compare it to my notes of how I found the furniture and the other, macabre ancillary. Amazingly, decades after the fact, everything matched.
###
The clip itself comprised a continuous stream formed of what had to have been a sequence of shorter segments:
1irst Segment:
At a couch sit three women - an older, frailer matron flanked by younger versions of herself. They chat with the cameraman (I assume).
2econd Segment:
The matron walks out of the frame and the cameraman pans to the opposite side of the salon where a man approaches the couch. The man is dressed in a style similar to that of Crowley’s regalia - decked head to toe with shades of violet and onyx. The magik-man approaches the couch with the women and offers them leis that they take and wear.
3hird Segment:
The matron reappears, followed by a pair of Amazonian-like natives - they were naked but their bodies were painted. The lei’ed women at the couch rise as the matron introduces them to the natives. It’s at that juncture that the cameraman reveals the women, too, have been painted. Neither men’s or women’s paints are native-like; rather, the runes are straight out of Thelema.
4ourth Segment:
The magik-man sits at the rug between a pair of circumscribed pentagrams. The magik-man lights a roll of sage (?) - the lack definition masks the identity of the object. Smoke billows out of it as he waves it over the pentagrams. The matron sets lights and sets six candles - three to the left and three to the right of the magik-man.
5ifth Segment:
The cameraman drifts down and to the left, down and to the left, down and to the left, to reveal the orgy. Painted men and women are paired and writhe about the pentagrams. The males lay with their backs to the floor and their heads crowned by the candles. The females lay atop the males. Their limbs intertwine. Their bodies contort. All to the rhythm of the magik-man beats into a drum.
6ixth Segment:
The matron, naked and painted, sits in front of the magik-man and extends a chalice.
7eventh Segment:
The magik-man pours the content of the chalice onto a loaf of bread. The cameraman zooms into that bread - it is shaped like a baby. At that instant the hands of the males and the females, their paint smeared and mingled post-orgy, reach onto the bread and yank it into four-quarters. They eat the bread.
8ighth Segment:
The magik and camera men remain at the salon; it’s night, it’s lit by torches.
They peel away the rug and reveal a circular portal into a shaft.
For a while the magik-man speaks to the cameraman. Subtitles state: “we consecrate the well - are you ready to see it again - to see it as it is enlivened by the spirit of [REDACTED] spurred by the ritual - are you ready - do you think you are ready”, then, “it looks like a hundred feet”, then, “as if a hundred feet were enough”.
9inth Segment:
The bulk of the video consists of the exploration of the mine at the base of the shaft. The magik-man takes turns, sometimes leading, sometimes lagging, always speaking although the German is not translated throughout this segment.
The pair reaches a part of the maze that collapsed. Although their posture is merely suggested by the aim of the camera, the pause and the silence that follows indicate that they are not ready for the obstacle and so struggle to clear a way through it. The viewer notes by the appearance of their hand that the cameraman is at last captured by their own footage.
The pair works through the collapse and discovers a vast, circular chamber.
The chamber is lit, awash by an eerie, hazy blue light. A crack crazes across the chamber. The light filters through that crack. The cameraman savors the chamber - it’s adorned like the salon; it’s a site where the cult practices its rituals. The cameraman sweeps toward the crack, prompted by a sound that startles the magik-man.
The cameraman zooms into the crack - it’s like a well, filled to the brim with water. It’s almost like an abyss, it sinks on and on hundreds if not thousands of feet; the limitations imposed by the film and the pixilation cannot do the reality any justice.
The water is upsettingly transparent through and through - and straight into the blur of light at whereever its bottom lay.
As the magik-man speaks off-screen and the cameraman continues their zoom, it’s apparent that there are things, things of a sort not floating but swimming through the water.
I scream as the view jostles - it is not a jump or a cut, though, it is the cameraman’s shake. Whoever it is that films that site, they had been startled by movement elsewhere. As the camera’s view twists to the side, it pans by where the magik-man stands and captures a glimpse, just, a glimpse of something that had been standing at the other side of the chasm right as it jumps into the water.
###
The house off US-350 loomed abandoned in appearance only. Nobody occupied it since the 70s; however, it was not derelict. County records verified that its owners - Ache Industrias, SA - paid its taxes year after year. Ache Industrias, named for a tribe of South American natives, was a company from Paraguay famous for its advances (and patents) re: GMOs. They were a partner to Monsanto but not as known outside of agriculture. Ache Industrias owned that house and the farms that engulfed it; a total of 500 acres.
BM: “Word is that the company wants to use this land for research.
“A lobby out of Denver, that represents a lot of cattlemen, filed a lawsuit working its way into the Supreme Court at this rate.” Farmers and ranchers who would be, effectively, neighbors, sharing their grazing rights of the nearby Comanche Grasslands objected to the idea, fearing the consequences to their business if their livestock mixed with the GMO livestock.
“Meanwhile the acreage isn’t dormant; it’s rented and reaps a lot of profit from royalties.”
Ache Industrias wasn’t the first owners, or, as it should be stated, wasn’t the first incarnation of the first owners.
BM: “An occultist, Straniak, was its proprietor of record according to my contacts from Brazil.”
Straniak, in partnership with two other expatriated Germans, formed a company c. 1930 then known as Straniak-West. Although the exact nature of Straniak-West wasn’t advertised, it’s suspected that they profited from the Chaco War and the partners became wealthy in spite of the Great Depression (which had been a world-wide phenomenon). As Europe verged into WWII, Straniak-West changed its moniker to Ache Industrias c. 1940. Around the tail end of 1941 the partners bought a thousand acres around the La Junta area; about half of the original estate was shed through the years.
BM: “Straniak and cohorts summered at their Colorado estate. Right up until they started to rent the land, the house had been the estates only, permanent structure. They used its solitude to mask their rituals.”
The cult / company was especially fond of that house and guarded its secrets.
Mortaren, as an aficionado of the occult, a passion that spurred him to review games of that genre, became aware of Aleister Crowley and the Thules, chieftains of bizarro early 20th mysticism, strands of which wormed their way into the works of Lovecraft, Blackwood, and a slew of other writers.
Straniak, and allies, German mystics intimately linked to the Thules, “a society with their own weird take on Aryanism” whose forays into sex-magik, blood-magik, and sacrifices made them too extreme even for the NAZIs.
“He fled to South America before Hitler, if you believe that sort of stuff.”
The house wasn’t built by Straniak and Co, though. It already existed by the time they hired a crew to survey their property c. 1933.
That area of Colorado had see-sawed between Spain and France before it was ceded to the US after the Mexican-American. Records from two centuries ago were hard to come by. Historians were reduced to combing through diaries and correspondences, however, the ephemera revealed a portion of history that otherwise had been lost.
The house used to be part of a hacienda granted to a patron of great wealth. Disagreements arose re: their identity as the sources used to piecemeal the history were themselves uncertain if the figure was American / English or French. Nevertheless, they built an extensive estate c. 1792. The house used to be larger; an earthquake c. 1820 reduced it more or less to the dimensions that Straniak & Co. found it.
What probably enticed the occultist crew was what legends claimed had been revealed after the earthquake. Namely - that the house had been erected over a mine from prehistory. The earthquake, as it leveled the house, revealed a shaft into that mine – which so happened to contain gold. Tthe patron used its revenue to rebuild the house - albeit to modest proportions - with the novelty that the house hid or capped the entrance into the mine.
BM: “The cavity underfoot itself isn’t the end-all and be-all. The cult was attracted to something else, something else not connected to wealth. Is it a portal into another realm? I donno what but it called to them and they poured resources into it.
“They recorded all of their rituals; the climax of which, which became Blue Beelzebub, if my timeline’s correct, matches an earthquake in 1983. It wasn’t much of an earthquake but it explains part of the video. It ripped a gash through the system. The server’s got to be inside that chasm, drawing power from geothermal. A system designed to work for ages without intervention while their poison spreads through the internet. Ah, but it won’t be there for long, I promise you.”
Night cloaked the house as we descended its rickety, tilted staircase. It felt as if the structure somehow, someway gained a sort of sentience after decades of mysticism echoed through its confines. I fancied it understood Mortaren’s intentions and shook at the foreknowledge.
If it goes, won’t that destroy the evidence? What about the crimes they committed? Won’t they go unpunished?
BM: “Altruism, don’t deny it, kiddo.”
My erstwhile host was adamant about their business and refuted my pleas to reason otherwise.
By destroying the house, they claimed, they would be saving lives, lives yet to be taken.
BM: “Kiddo, you’re talking about people, people who will never be punished never, never, never be punished for anything. Blue Beelzebub, it’s just the tip of the tip of the iceberg. And you know it. It’s always like that. They regroup and reorganize. But they took me down. And I’m gonna take this much, this much if anything away from them. Mark my words, they’ll imagine another way to entrap kids and spread their filth. And that’s where you and those like you continue what I start tonight.”
###
A stark midnight moon loomed to the south west over the jagged peaks of the Sangre De Cristos. There wasn’t a cloud to mar the sky. Crisp, summery wind stirred a floral scent about the air, then it faded, driven away to the ether by a tide of gasoline then of a char / smoke. I drove by the orchard where I noted how the orange escaped the house. It almost looked like a face, a skeletal face, buried into the junipers. I waved. Maybe the gesture was or wasn’t returned. I didn’t stay.
That was the last I saw of Bobby Mortaren.
I dismantled the laptops’ HDDs; I scraped the platters then I applied a welder’s torch to them, fusing them, melting them, obliterating any trace what so ever of the data they contained. Later I shredded the floppies and the CD and the papers. For all I knew those may have been the last, extant copies of Blue Beelzebub.
My paying job resumed its malaise although I noted that my contacts with the FBI waned. Then my editors shuffled my workload. Cases I had been assigned to were re-directed elsewhere. Leads dried. I was shunned more and more. I could not help but recognize a familiarity to the pattern - to the way I was being isolated and overshadowed. I tried to squash the paranoia that may have transferred to me as I entertained the notion of starting yet another career.
Little had been reported about the explosion south of Timpas that night.
I eked out a single article about the decline and fall of bitcoin. After that I put my thoughts together to form this record of my dealings with Blue Beelzebub. Partly to settle the history of it - as much of it as I understood. Partly to form a defense. I wanted to be transparent; there’s such scant cover for journalists nowadays.
Earlier I received a call from a woman, a former FBI agent who claimed they owed me a favor.
They warned that “I had been flagged by an anti-virus software vendor that works with the government”. Apparently, the anti-virus / malware scan had detected a rare item and reported it to the vendor’s server for analysis. That’s how the NSA discovered “the executable” with “embedded content” that “raised eyebrows”. It wasn’t just the government that started to investigate Blue Beelzebub, they continued, “a third party, a cryptic South American outfit”, long suspected of trafficking and exploiting minors, “sparked a lot of chatter across the deep-web about you. You got enemies, son, lots and lots of enemies.”
I didn’t know of any FBI agent, current and / or former who “owed me a favor”. I stated that in fact I had received a couple of floppies from a source familiar with the game. Naturally, I scanned the media. “I couldn’t get the program to work properly. It needs DOS and there aren’t too many PCs like it anymore. I destroyed all of that ‘cause it gave me the creeps.”
It wasn’t entirely a lie.
submitted by 0fruitjack0 to nosleep [link] [comments]

Holo: A dreamer or a terminator?

Project Rating:
The level achieved: A-
Total Score: 7.66
I. Project Introduction
Holo (hot) is the first app of Holochain, and it is also a pass/fuel to Holochain's. Holochain is not a blockchain, but a Holochain. It is a decentralized application platform built on the basis of distributed hash table (DHT) technology. Its feature is that every user on the network can have its own security classification chain, can operate independently, can interact with other devices on the network and can increase data by itself. In addition, it can merge, split, interaction between the chains. It can realize the edge of the decentralized computing, and extended, centered by agent, and then achieve the horizontal and vertical expansion. The Holo chain is a new data storage and transmission mode, which can be used for any terminal device similar to a smartphone. They can run independently, become part of a peer to peer network, and can not be connected to a centralization server. In this way, Holo chain developers can build distributed applications and services on this basic, protecting users' privacy, allowing users to obtain their own data.
II. Project Evaluation
2-1: Market Analysis:
Scored: 1.67/Out of 2.1

2-1-1: Market Space
Network security, users' data and property rights, and trusted value circulation and transfer are the main priority that internet giants aim to build in various clouds. it is also a strong back up for rising blockchain technology. The applied value of the Holo chain also lies in this and has the opportunity to become a strong one that can not be ignored in this market.
For example, cloud services revenues represented by Amazon are increasing by more than 30 % annually, reaching more than 250 billion dollars by the end of 2017. Amazon, Google, and other large companies dominate the cloud computing industry.
Holo chain represented as the next generation encryption application level platform is based on the encrypted money market under the Ethereum (ETH) intelligent contract. Let's take a look at the data of September 2017.
According to preliminary incomplete statistics, the monthly transaction volume reaches hundreds of billions of us dollars, and various applications are continuing to generate. The Holo chain is a supplement to the blockchain; The share price for competitors in the future depends on the application of the product and the common agreement of the users, the market potential can be measured by trillions.
2-1-2: Market Weakness:
Scored: 8
Blockchain 1.0 version is bitcoin. The technology of blockchain is abstracted from bitcoin, and a series of digital currencies are derived from BTC, such as BCH, LTC to DASH, MONERO, ZCASH and so on. Until now, the market value of these digital currencies is still at the forefront. However, improved 1.0 version will have a great potential to extend its extensibility.
Blockchain 2.0 is developed by Ethereum. It adds Turing's intelligent contract, which makes the trusted code become a reality, detonated the crowdfunding market and greatly expands its imagination. The various modules provided on the platform enable users who need to be applied on the ground to only combine the modules, greatly reducing the cost and improving the efficiency.
The custom version of blockchain 3.0 is led by EOS, to make changes for Ethereum, in order to overtake the previous version, along with the framework of graphene, using the DPOS consensus mechanism, to improve the scalability, stability, transaction costs, and congestion. To improve efficiency through the relative centralization of 21 nodes, balance security, performance, and centralization on this basis, to carry millions of business applications that are explosive and not to participate in the millions of users and blockchain investment. However, after multiple rounds of testing, EOS did not achieve the legendary effect. In fact, even if it can effectively improve the shortcomings of the Ethereum, its base structure can not fundamentally solve these problems of version 2.0.
Performance, scalability, congestion, high transaction fees, energy consumption and energy consumption will always suppress large-scale commercial applications. In order to secure the efficiency of the centralization system and at the same time, if security, de-centralization, and performance cannot be applied, do we have to think of another choice?
2-1-3: Compatibility
Scored: 7
Range in between: 7-8/Out of 10
Whether there is a blockchain 3.0 version and whether it can solve the defects of the version 2.0, it is still a question. So far, there is no effective way, and the reformed version of EOS at present can only be called version 2.5.
If we can't solve the flaw in blockchain 2.0 version, there will be no blockchain 3.0, it will be an opportunity for Holo chain who can reach the main network within 3 or 6 months. Taking a step back, there is a market worth trillion-dollar
2-1-4: Application Scenario
Scored: 8
Range in between: 7-8/Out of 10
A.Cloud computing

Cloud service is the application of Holo chain in the traditional digital world, which is completely different from the matrix model of Internet giants like Amazon, Facebook, it adopts a completely point-to-point decentralization model similar to the blockchain.
B.Operation mode
Purchasing preconfigured equipment or installing the holo app on the existing computer equipment, the system will run in the background and allocate spare computing power. When other users need hosting, your device will be able to provide storage and processing, through hosting distributed applications, you are supporting a website for authorized individuals and communities, in exchange, you can get Holo fuel, a micropayment encryption currency, which can be sold to others or used to pay for your hosting.
A fully point-to-point decentralized distributed cloud owned and run by individual users themselves.
2-1-5: Token Mechanism
Scored: 6
Range in between: 5-6/Out of 10

Holo Token Distribution Diagram:
75% use for sale
25% use for teamwork
Total circulation: 1776 billion
Sales (full circulation):1332 billion
ICO time:29/3/2018-28/4/2018
ICO price:10000HOT=0.0022671895(About a HOT=0.001 RMB)
The current unit price: 0.007 RMB
On the exchange:Hotbit、Top.one、IDEX、Bilaxy、Mexc
The distribution of tokens and the extra large circulation of tokens can be de-centralized in terms of ecological construction and will be beneficial to the operability of application users. However, the speculation on the price of tokens will have some adverse effects. It took only three days from the end of ICO to the first exchange to go online,the exchange is still very concerned about the value that may be generated behind ICO, Whether you can log on to the mainstream trading platform ( e.g. value-oriented system Bian ) before you go to the main service online trading platform will play a key role in the price trend after it.
2-2: Active Level
Total Scored: 0.56/Out of 0.7
Scored:8
Range in between: 7-8/Out of 10
Facebook:
Facebook has 2263 users, and its content posts are active. Recently, the introduction of hardware devices has taken up a certain amount in overall amount.
Twitter:
There are 1472 fans on Twitter and 722 tweets. The registration time is 2017 August, and the update of tweets is still very frequent.
Telegram:
There are 7723 members on the telegram, and the members are very active
Others:
Multiple official communities have been set up at home
In general, the official initiative is not enough. It is more from the bottom up,or the official energy is more focused on product development.



2-3: Risk Assessment
Total Scored: 0.42/Out of 0.7
Development difficulty:
Scored:7
Range in between: 7-8/Out of 10
Holo chain brings up a concept that uses the proxy as center manager, let the users decide when it is the right time to maintain consensus, which means that when the A and B have reached consensus, only until the developer C uploads the code, three of them do not need to reach a consensus. Each node can have its own source of truth, only when there is a need to share with other nodes, the Holo chain with DHT technology is an underlying structure, it continuously verifies distributed hash table (DHT). The main applications of the current application of DHT technology include BitTorrent, Git, Storm Botnet, Freenet, Yacy, IPFS, and Holochain. The first five applications belong to the traditional Internet technology application, and the latter two involve the current hot blockchain technology.
That is to say, DHT technology has been widely used in the traditional Internet, HDT technology has a strong background, and on the technical viewpoint, recently need more development of various modules based on DHT, and some modules of the blockchain are used for reference, so that the original difficulties has been reduced a lot, and the basic development over 2 years time has given it a bright future. Within a few months, the main network has laid a solid foundation. So overall, the difficulty level has been given to medium stage.
2-3-2: Degree of competition
Scored:5
Range in between:5-6/Out of 10
How to get the ecological system of business? Users need to establish the ecological system is the core element of the project. In the face of the ETH that promotes the commercial application of the blockchain and the establishment of a powerful ecosystem, NEO has also established a small ecological system, as well as the EOS and Ae, the competition between the main network of the public chain since ETH has never stopped after the attention has been paid. This is the future standard competition in the blockchain. The Holo chain uses a new application platform to compete with the entire chain to attract commercial users to build Dapp, which is much harder than from 1 to 100 than from 0 to 1.
If we confirm the feasibility of DHT technology, a lot of followers will be attracted by this, which will be a great threat to Holo chains.
2-3-3: Other Risks
Scored:6
Range in between:5-6/Out of 10
The main network will be available within following three to six months, and there is a much lower risk of a technical hit than a major subsequent change. Lacking operating members will also become a shortcoming. A lack of consensus may result in a risk that a small number of people sabotaging it that will greatly reduce efficiency.


2-4: Key Technology
Total Scored:0.95/Out of 1.05
Technology Innovation scored: 9
Range in between:9-10/Out of 10

Holo chain adopts DHT (distributed hash table technology) as the underlying technology, and DHT is a distributed storage method. This distributed network does not require a central node server, but each client is responsible for a small range of routing and is responsible for storing a small portion of the data to achieve the address and storage of the entire DHT network. The DHT network also replicated redundant information on the closest keywords to avoid single node failure. We can imagine the whole DHT network into a big city, so each client, like in every corner of the city, map fragments, mapping the terrain in the vicinity of above, after the summary, the fragments of the whole city came out.
DHT is a distributed storage and addressing technology. Through DHT data structure, it corresponds the KEY and VALUE in some way. Use the hash () function to map a KEY value to an index: hash (KEY) = index. In this way, you can match a KEY value with an index. Then the VALUE corresponding to this KEY value, it is stored in the marked storage space marked by index. In this way, every time you want to find the VALUE, the value will correspond to KEY, you only need to do a hash () operation to find it.

The Holo chain stores the whole network accounts distributed on the participating nodes and guarantees the book integrity and the searchable retrievability through the DHT addressing technology. Perhaps I have not made clear the key to the difference. The account book on the Holo chain is the same as the blockchain, which is a unified version of the whole network, but the book is not a copy of each person, but only a copy of the original, each of which is stored in part, and each person stores the parts related to their own transaction and state transformation. Holo officials often say that each of the words on the Holo is a chain. Of course, everyone has their own transactions, that is, their own chain, their own accounts, but their own accounts are also part of the whole net general ledger, through DHT technology and cryptography technology to make these divisions indivisible. The books stored by each node are unique and necessary. Compared with the blockchain, it greatly reduces the space and bandwidth of the duplicates and also preserves the advantages of the decentralization of the blockchain and the tampering of the blockchain.
2-4-2: Code Status
scored: 9
Range in between:9-10/Out of 10
The code has been open source and updated very frequently
The code is also approved and praised by professionals
2-5: Execution Status
scored: 0.84/Out of 1.05
Range in between:7.8/Out of 10
The method of project party propaganda is somehow different. It only shows the roadmap for this year. It shows the serious attitude towards it. It is true that some long-term development is difficult to achieve.
Online Alpha Edition; after ICO
In the 2nd quarter, we tested the online and offered Holo fuel to the early stage, while carrying out the safety audit and the ability to adjust DHT parameters and behaviors.
In the third quarter, the team has packed the equipment, using Holo fuel as the first transaction and released the version of alpha3 for the core application service of the main network.
In the fourth quarter, we completed one hundred million transactions per hour as a test. At the same time, we ran the Holo network on ten thousand devices and finally released the main chain public beta.
The implementation is online with progress, with a pity, that last year and this year’s progress cannot be displayed.
2-6: Team Evaluation
scored: 1.12/Out of 1.4
Investment team
Scored:8
Range in between:7-8/Out of 10
ArthurBrock as a founder and chief architect
In 1989, he graduated from Michigan State University, studying artificial intelligence, and interdisciplinary learning in computer science, linguistics, cognitive psycHology, and philosophy. In 2004, he was the chief technical officer and head of the money system design at Targeted currencies, and during that time he founded his own enterprise: Geek Meister, focused on the innovative monetary system and founded the MetaCUrrency Project company in 2008. The focus of technology development is Ceptr, trying to build an operating framework for distributed applications, to create a point to point platform for new shared resources, and to create a reliable protocol for free exchange of information by devices, and Holochain is the operating framework of distributed applications focused on ceptr projects. In 2016, the Holochain project was formally established and designed as a platform for the next generation of encryption applications to provide P2P distributed computing beyond the performance of the blockchain.
Eric Harris-Braun Chief executive officer of the co-Founder
He is also co-founder of the MetaCurrencyProject project, and co-founder of Glass bead software and free software developer Harris-braun Enterprises, a peer-to-peer network application provider. The company created a sophisticated data collection website. In 1994, he released the Internet directory, which sold more than 100 thousand copies and was bought by Google.
There are a total of 33 members, of which eight are the core positions of the Holochain predecessor, MetaCurrency Project when it was founded in 2008 and also as a Holo team.
The company has not hired advisers at this moment.
The founder has rich experience in the design of the monetary system, and the technical capability of the project team is very strong.
2-7: Risk Assessment
scored: 2.1/Out of 2.4
Overall, Social Circle has an average score of 7, take 30% of the overall score.
Project Summary:
To sum up, M dimension is 1.67 points, A dimension is 0.56points, R dimension is 0.42points, K dimension is 0.95points, E dimension is 0.84points, T dimension is 1.12points, community comprehensive score is 2.1points, total score is 7.66points, investment grade A- class, the comprehensive ability of this project is strong.





submitted by ONETOPGlobal to u/ONETOPGlobal [link] [comments]

In case you made the same mistake I did about transferring LTC to Electrum for BTC. Solution inside.

This is what you have to do to claim back your litecoins:
  1. Start Electrum for bitcoin. Go to File New/Restore Enter new Wallet name Next, Next
  2. Create Standard wallet Next
  3. Select I already have a seed Next
  4. Enter the seed words that were given to you when you created your 2fa wallet. (The seed type should say 2fa) Next
  5. Select Disable 2fa Next
  6. Don't enter any password Next
  7. Your new wallet is generated - all the wallet addresses should be exactly the same as your old 2fa wallet. Shut down Electrum
  8. Go to the directory where your electrum wallet is saved on your computer - the location depends on your Operating System
  9. With a text editor, open your electrum wallet and go to the end of the file, you should find x1 to x3. Those are the Extended Master Private keys and Public keys of all the co-signers for your wallet. x3 is TrustedCoin, so you should only have the XPUB from them, not their XPRIV. It is ok, you only 2 out of 3 Private keys to sign your transactions, but you need three keys to re-create the addresses.
  10. In a blank text file, copy and paste the XPRIV for x1 and x2, and the XPUB for x3.
  11. Download electrum-ltc from www.electrum-ltc.org and install it on your computer.
  12. Start Electrum-LTC, and create a new Multi-Signature wallet
  13. Move the slide to have 3 cosigners, and 2 signatures Next
  14. Select Use public or Private keys Next
  15. In order, enter here x1 XPRIV key saved in the blank text file at step 10 Next (verify the corresponding XPUB is the same as in the electrum wallet file at step 9) Next
  16. Repeat for the second and third co-signers: x2 XPRIV key, and last x3 XPUB key
  17. The wallet addresses are generated. The addresses will start with the letter "M" to ensure that you won't make the same mistake as the last time. Your funds should be there in one of the new addresses, once the wallet is synched. You are in synch if the blockchain header file reaches about 105 MB - (in the electrum-ltc directory).
Then transfer over to your original wallet or whatever you want to do.
I don't take credit for this solution but I've had such a headache with this issue that I hope I can help someone else out.
Credit goes to a user nerioseole from another forum.
submitted by Errccc to litecoin [link] [comments]

Subreddit Stats: nem top posts from 2014-01-25 to 2017-04-19 14:37 PDT

Period: 1179.92 days
Submissions Comments
Total 237 542
Rate (per day) 0.20 0.46
Unique Redditors 123 188
Combined Score 1020 800

Top Submitters' Top Submissions

  1. 203 points, 29 submissions: TauMuon
    1. NEM F.A.Q. Thread - Read This before Posting! (16 points, 6 comments)
    2. The NEM Community Client (NCC) (16 points, 8 comments)
    3. The Final Stakeholder List Has Been Published! (12 points, 6 comments)
    4. How will NEM be delivered to the stakeholders? (11 points, 3 comments)
    5. Partially Functional NEM Community Client (NCC) Mockup (11 points, 2 comments)
    6. The NEM IPO Has Officially Come to a Close! (11 points, 3 comments)
    7. What charitable foundations would you like to see NEM donate to? (11 points, 9 comments)
    8. The Stakeholder Waiting List Is Now Closed (9 points, 4 comments)
    9. 1000 NEM Stakes Will Be Listed on the NXT Asset Exchange to Enable Trading Prior to Laucnh (8 points, 2 comments)
    10. Announcement: The NEM Official Logo (8 points, 7 comments)
  2. 94 points, 19 submissions: n3lz0n1
    1. Is NEM REALLY the sleeping giant? (18 points, 0 comments)
    2. What value does NEM Blockchain add above currently available technologies (e.g. Bitcoin, Ethereum) (10 points, 4 comments)
    3. Top 6 Cryptocurrencies With the Best Technology, So Far..... (8 points, 0 comments)
    4. XHAI STUDIOS ADOPTS NEM BLOCKCHAIN TECHNOLOGY FOR VIDEO GAMES (8 points, 0 comments)
    5. NEM Apostille - Blockchain Notarizations that are Transferable, Updatable, Branded, and Conjointly Owned (6 points, 0 comments)
    6. Chrome Web Browser NEM Price Ticker Addon (5 points, 1 comment)
    7. Radicalizing the Equity Market Landscape - by Lon Wong (5 points, 3 comments)
    8. Coincheck now support 3 different types of cryptocurrencies NEM, Litecoin, and DASH! With the addition of these new currencies, Coincheck now handles a total of 13 currencies. (4 points, 0 comments)
    9. NEM’s Developer guide Get all information you need to develop on NEM’s technology. (4 points, 0 comments)
    10. Arra Inc. Support Enterprises to Create Virtual Currencies or Tokens by Using “Zaica” as an Integration Partner (3 points, 0 comments)
  3. 89 points, 15 submissions: iruniclee
    1. What is NEM ? (12 points, 3 comments)
    2. NEM has launced! - Welcome to a New Economy! (11 points, 4 comments)
    3. official launch date for NEM: 31 March 2015 - at 19:00 UTC. (10 points, 4 comments)
    4. Announcing NEM, The First egalitarian crypto. Join The Movement! (9 points, 4 comments)
    5. Noumerous phishing attemps are being reported by stakeholders and members on BCT.org - NEMstake issuance stopped until further notice (9 points, 8 comments)
    6. XEM Reddit Giveaway - Welcome to a New Economy (8 points, 12 comments)
    7. IMPORTANT ANNOUNCEMENT - PLEASE READ (7 points, 0 comments)
    8. NEM Beta 0.6.26 - SECURITY UPDATE (6 points, 0 comments)
    9. The Independent: Recorded tapes on how Anglo-Irish bank's top executives lied to the government & general public about the extend of the loses. (4 points, 0 comments)
    10. Final NEM Redemption Phase 1 has begun - Token Registration (3 points, 4 comments)
  4. 46 points, 7 submissions: TheProject2501
    1. Alpha is coming out soon! Are you excited? (9 points, 8 comments)
    2. First 3rd party app for NEM from Owon (8 points, 0 comments)
    3. Letter to all NEM stakeholders (8 points, 1 comment)
    4. First transaction in history for a product or service in exchange for NEM has just happened (7 points, 3 comments)
    5. NEM running on tv :-) (7 points, 1 comment)
    6. A great tweet from Come-from-Beyond (4 points, 1 comment)
    7. A great post on BTT (3 points, 2 comments)
  5. 41 points, 10 submissions: ubunt2
    1. 386 Sock puppets kicked out in secret analysis! (10 points, 0 comments)
    2. NXT AE Redemption Update (7 points, 0 comments)
    3. Calling all javascript devs ... help NEM get ready for launch! (5 points, 0 comments)
    4. Triple Check Your Private Keys - Launch Imminent (5 points, 2 comments)
    5. NEM's Apostille - The only 2nd generation blockchain notarization app (3 points, 0 comments)
    6. Proof-of-Importance: How NEM is Going to Add Reputations to the Blockchain (3 points, 2 comments)
    7. Coinbase asking for next currency to add (2 points, 0 comments)
    8. How Japanese Blockchain Technology Revolutionizes Municipal Government in Belgium (2 points, 0 comments)
    9. NEM core more secure than BTC, XRP, ETH (2 points, 0 comments)
    10. PR Release: NEM Version 2.0 - Catapult! (2 points, 0 comments)
  6. 18 points, 4 submissions: algar32
    1. Elevator pitch for NEM? (10 points, 6 comments)
    2. Any good tutorials out there for setting up delegated harvesting? (4 points, 2 comments)
    3. NEM web designers: I have a minor correction for the website. (3 points, 0 comments)
    4. Is there a subreddit for NEM speculation? (1 point, 2 comments)
  7. 16 points, 9 submissions: TheBigBlabberMouth
    1. I am in love with Nem (5 points, 4 comments)
    2. Its been 4days, .68% POI, 67k vested but nothing mined. Why? (3 points, 8 comments)
    3. Can I use one wallet on two devices? And will that cpu power increase my pos? (2 points, 4 comments)
    4. How do I program a decentralized website with Nem's blockchain? (2 points, 0 comments)
    5. Does the Nem phone wallet constantly run increasing my P.O.I? (1 point, 0 comments)
    6. How do I know if my phone nem app is running in the background havesting? (1 point, 4 comments)
    7. I'm delegated but should I leave my nano wallet open for better harvesting? (1 point, 1 comment)
    8. If I credit my Nem wallet do i have to do another Importance transfer transaction to acknowledge the new balance? (1 point, 0 comments)
    9. Could Nem break out hard? • AllCoins (0 points, 0 comments)
  8. 15 points, 3 submissions: a4i
    1. Any update on timing for the final launch? (6 points, 1 comment)
    2. When will nem launch? (6 points, 2 comments)
    3. ERROR 500 (3 points, 0 comments)
  9. 14 points, 4 submissions: kodtycoon
    1. Nem multipool to launch pre-nem launch (7 points, 0 comments)
    2. please read (3 points, 0 comments)
    3. want to buy nem on nxt asset exchange before launch? tell utopian here! (3 points, 1 comment)
    4. Mijin permissioned blockchain solution releases feature set, includes linking a public and private chain with smart contracts. (1 point, 0 comments)
  10. 12 points, 4 submissions: austenten
    1. Start Local Harvesting: Error 700, but I have more than the min 1,000 XEM (5 points, 16 comments)
    2. Tried harvesting but didnt get a reward (4 points, 5 comments)
    3. the not so stable 0.6.31 installer (2 points, 0 comments)
    4. Update your client & feedback for the core devs/designes (1 point, 1 comment)
  11. 12 points, 3 submissions: greatwolf
    1. What will the transaction fees look like in NEM? (7 points, 3 comments)
    2. Invested through btc not Nxt AE; How do I redeem my NEMStake? (3 points, 8 comments)
    3. How do you specify a different db directory location on where the blockchain's stored? (2 points, 1 comment)
  12. 12 points, 1 submission: _nightengale_
    1. When is the distribution taking place? (12 points, 9 comments)
  13. 12 points, 1 submission: cmbartley
    1. Why is NEM pumping so hard? (12 points, 17 comments)
  14. 12 points, 1 submission: shantell7
    1. NEMCOIN OFFICIAL FORUM (12 points, 0 comments)
  15. 11 points, 2 submissions: jaspita
    1. NEM logo/meme collection (9 points, 0 comments)
    2. Divisibility of NEM (2 points, 1 comment)
  16. 11 points, 1 submission: SZZT
    1. Our Nem (11 points, 0 comments)
  17. 11 points, 1 submission: utopianfuture
    1. NEM's first development plan (11 points, 8 comments)
  18. 11 points, 1 submission: zoata87
    1. NEM at Facebook now! Share :) (11 points, 0 comments)
  19. 10 points, 2 submissions: loba333
    1. Whats going on with this coin, havn't heard anything for a while (9 points, 3 comments)
    2. I purchased XEM in the original ICO, where can i retrieve my coins ? (1 point, 1 comment)
  20. 9 points, 5 submissions: reddibrek
    1. Coinfest UK 2017 – schedule and interview (2 points, 0 comments)
    2. Cryptocurrency startups gaining traction in India (2 points, 1 comment)
    3. Where to find the crypto-capital of the world? (2 points, 1 comment)
    4. Why are banks falling over themselves to open-source their blockchains? (2 points, 0 comments)
    5. Reddheads – Independent Crypto News (1 point, 1 comment)
  21. 9 points, 2 submissions: Jemtex
    1. code base traps (6 points, 2 comments)
    2. help password not working (3 points, 1 comment)
  22. 9 points, 2 submissions: nyanpi
    1. Huge announcement from NEM tomorrow? I guess that means it's time for a speculation thread! (5 points, 4 comments)
    2. NEM Newsletter #9 (4 points, 0 comments)
  23. 8 points, 3 submissions: _AlanT
    1. Any people only living from their XEM ? (4 points, 11 comments)
    2. How much a supernode earn daily/weekly ? (2 points, 10 comments)
    3. New nano-wallet radically simple (2 points, 1 comment)
  24. 8 points, 2 submissions: yamfy
    1. NEMgold and NEMsilver Ecosystem Crowd Sale (4 points, 3 comments)
    2. Turn NEMstake into real gold and silver (4 points, 0 comments)
  25. 8 points, 1 submission: 1NFINITEDEATH
    1. What NEM needs.. (8 points, 7 comments)

Top Commenters

  1. iruniclee (55 points, 30 comments)
  2. TauMuon (45 points, 30 comments)
  3. TheProject2501 (28 points, 20 comments)
  4. Metasaurus_Rex (22 points, 13 comments)
  5. ubunt2 (20 points, 13 comments)
  6. utopianfuture (18 points, 8 comments)
  7. austenten (17 points, 9 comments)
  8. TheBigBlabberMouth (15 points, 13 comments)
  9. SZZT (15 points, 8 comments)
  10. jabo38 (15 points, 4 comments)
  11. wiburg (14 points, 12 comments)
  12. Marino4K (13 points, 3 comments)
  13. nyanpi (12 points, 8 comments)
  14. volatilepointer (12 points, 7 comments)
  15. BitWhale (12 points, 1 comment)
  16. digichris (11 points, 9 comments)
  17. devoidme (11 points, 7 comments)
  18. Zoxec (11 points, 6 comments)
  19. frozeman (10 points, 7 comments)
  20. OldCole (10 points, 5 comments)
  21. kanada_kid (9 points, 9 comments)
  22. n3lz0n1 (8 points, 8 comments)
  23. gevsdev (8 points, 7 comments)
  24. t8p (8 points, 7 comments)
  25. norti (8 points, 3 comments)

Top Submissions

  1. Is NEM REALLY the sleeping giant? by n3lz0n1 (18 points, 0 comments)
  2. The NEM Community Client (NCC) by TauMuon (16 points, 8 comments)
  3. NEM F.A.Q. Thread - Read This before Posting! by TauMuon (16 points, 6 comments)
  4. Why is NEM pumping so hard? by cmbartley (12 points, 17 comments)
  5. When is the distribution taking place? by _nightengale_ (12 points, 9 comments)
  6. The Final Stakeholder List Has Been Published! by TauMuon (12 points, 6 comments)
  7. What is NEM ? by iruniclee (12 points, 3 comments)
  8. NEMCOIN OFFICIAL FORUM by shantell7 (12 points, 0 comments)
  9. What charitable foundations would you like to see NEM donate to? by TauMuon (11 points, 9 comments)
  10. NEM's first development plan by utopianfuture (11 points, 8 comments)

Top Comments

  1. 12 points: BitWhale's comment in Why is NEM pumping so hard?
  2. 7 points: Marino4K's comment in A good idea to invest right now?
  3. 6 points: jabo38's comment in What value does NEM provide given we have a suite of other technologies available?
  4. 5 points: 1NFINITEDEATH's comment in What NEM needs..
  5. 5 points: Fresh20s's comment in Why is NEM pumping so hard?
  6. 5 points: OldCole's comment in XEM Reddit Giveaway - Welcome to a New Economy
  7. 5 points: davidpbrown's comment in official launch date for NEM: 31 March 2015 - at 19:00 UTC.
  8. 5 points: iruniclee's comment in What charitable foundations would you like to see NEM donate to?
  9. 4 points: 33matt's comment in NEM price prediction out 5 years.
  10. 4 points: Marino4K's comment in Why is NEM pumping so hard?
Generated with BBoe's Subreddit Stats (Donate)
submitted by subreddit_stats to subreddit_stats [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Core 0.11.0 released | Wladimir J. van der Laan | Jul 12 2015

Wladimir J. van der Laan on Jul 12 2015:
-----BEGIN PGP SIGNED MESSAGE-----
Hash: SHA512
Bitcoin Core version 0.11.0 is now available from:
<https://bitcoin.org/bin/bitcoin-core-0.11.0/>
This is a new major version release, bringing both new features and
bug fixes.
Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github:
<https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues>
The entire distribution is also available as torrent:
magnet:?xt=urn:btih:82f0d2fa100d6db8a8c1338768dcb9e4e524da13&dn;=bitcoin-core-0.11.0&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.coppersurfer.tk%3A6969&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Fopen.demonii.com%3A1337&ws;=https%3A%2F%2Fbitcoin.org%2Fbin%2F 
Upgrading and downgrading

How to Upgrade
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely
shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the
installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or
bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux).
Downgrade warning
Because release 0.10.0 and later makes use of headers-first synchronization and
parallel block download (see further), the block files and databases are not
backwards-compatible with pre-0.10 versions of Bitcoin Core or other software:
  • Blocks will be stored on disk out of order (in the order they are
received, really), which makes it incompatible with some tools or
other programs. Reindexing using earlier versions will also not work
anymore as a result of this.
  • The block index database will now hold headers for which no block is
stored on disk, which earlier versions won't support.
If you want to be able to downgrade smoothly, make a backup of your entire data
directory. Without this your node will need start syncing (or importing from
bootstrap.dat) anew afterwards. It is possible that the data from a completely
synchronised 0.10 node may be usable in older versions as-is, but this is not
supported and may break as soon as the older version attempts to reindex.
This does not affect wallet forward or backward compatibility. There are no
known problems when downgrading from 0.11.x to 0.10.x.
Important information

Transaction flooding
At the time of this release, the P2P network is being flooded with low-fee
transactions. This causes a ballooning of the mempool size.
If this growth of the mempool causes problematic memory use on your node, it is
possible to change a few configuration options to work around this. The growth
of the mempool can be monitored with the RPC command getmempoolinfo.
One is to increase the minimum transaction relay fee minrelaytxfee, which
defaults to 0.00001. This will cause transactions with fewer BTC/kB fee to be
rejected, and thus fewer transactions entering the mempool.
The other is to restrict the relaying of free transactions with
limitfreerelay. This option sets the number of kB/minute at which
free transactions (with enough priority) will be accepted. It defaults to 15.
Reducing this number reduces the speed at which the mempool can grow due
to free transactions.
For example, add the following to bitcoin.conf:
minrelaytxfee=0.00005 limitfreerelay=5 
More robust solutions are being worked on for a follow-up release.
Notable changes

Block file pruning
This release supports running a fully validating node without maintaining a copy
of the raw block and undo data on disk. To recap, there are four types of data
related to the blockchain in the bitcoin system: the raw blocks as received over
the network (blk???.dat), the undo data (rev???.dat), the block index and the
UTXO set (both LevelDB databases). The databases are built from the raw data.
Block pruning allows Bitcoin Core to delete the raw block and undo data once
it's been validated and used to build the databases. At that point, the raw data
is used only to relay blocks to other nodes, to handle reorganizations, to look
up old transactions (if -txindex is enabled or via the RPC/REST interfaces), or
for rescanning the wallet. The block index continues to hold the metadata about
all blocks in the blockchain.
The user specifies how much space to allot for block & undo files. The minimum
allowed is 550MB. Note that this is in addition to whatever is required for the
block index and UTXO databases. The minimum was chosen so that Bitcoin Core will
be able to maintain at least 288 blocks on disk (two days worth of blocks at 10
minutes per block). In rare instances it is possible that the amount of space
used will exceed the pruning target in order to keep the required last 288
blocks on disk.
Block pruning works during initial sync in the same way as during steady state,
by deleting block files "as you go" whenever disk space is allocated. Thus, if
the user specifies 550MB, once that level is reached the program will begin
deleting the oldest block and undo files, while continuing to download the
blockchain.
For now, block pruning disables block relay. In the future, nodes with block
pruning will at a minimum relay "new" blocks, meaning blocks that extend their
active chain.
Block pruning is currently incompatible with running a wallet due to the fact
that block data is used for rescanning the wallet and importing keys or
addresses (which require a rescan.) However, running the wallet with block
pruning will be supported in the near future, subject to those limitations.
Block pruning is also incompatible with -txindex and will automatically disable
it.
Once you have pruned blocks, going back to unpruned state requires
re-downloading the entire blockchain. To do this, re-start the node with
  • -reindex. Note also that any problem that would cause a user to reindex (e.g.,
disk corruption) will cause a pruned node to redownload the entire blockchain.
Finally, note that when a pruned node reindexes, it will delete any blk???.dat
and rev???.dat files in the data directory prior to restarting the download.
To enable block pruning on the command line:
  • - -prune=N: where N is the number of MB to allot for raw block & undo data.
Modified RPC calls:
    • getblockchaininfo now includes whether we are in pruned mode or not.
    • getblock will check if the block's data has been pruned and if so, return an
error.
  • - getrawtransaction will no longer be able to locate a transaction that has a
UTXO but where its block file has been pruned.
Pruning is disabled by default.
Big endian support
Experimental support for big-endian CPU architectures was added in this
release. All little-endian specific code was replaced with endian-neutral
constructs. This has been tested on at least MIPS and PPC hosts. The build
system will automatically detect the endianness of the target.
Memory usage optimization
There have been many changes in this release to reduce the default memory usage
of a node, among which:
    • Accurate UTXO cache size accounting (#6102); this makes the option -dbcache
    precise where this grossly underestimated memory usage before
    • Reduce size of per-peer data structure (#6064 and others); this increases the
    number of connections that can be supported with the same amount of memory
    • Reduce the number of threads (#5964, #5679); lowers the amount of (esp.
    virtual) memory needed
Fee estimation changes
This release improves the algorithm used for fee estimation. Previously, -1
was returned when there was insufficient data to give an estimate. Now, -1
will also be returned when there is no fee or priority high enough for the
desired confirmation target. In those cases, it can help to ask for an estimate
for a higher target number of blocks. It is not uncommon for there to be no
fee or priority high enough to be reliably (85%) included in the next block and
for this reason, the default for -txconfirmtarget=n has changed from 1 to 2.
Privacy: Disable wallet transaction broadcast
This release adds an option -walletbroadcast=0 to prevent automatic
transaction broadcast and rebroadcast (#5951). This option allows separating
transaction submission from the node functionality.
Making use of this, third-party scripts can be written to take care of
transaction (re)broadcast:
    • Send the transaction as normal, either through RPC or the GUI
    • Retrieve the transaction data through RPC using gettransaction (NOT
    getrawtransaction). The hex field of the result will contain the raw
    hexadecimal representation of the transaction
    • The transaction can then be broadcasted through arbitrary mechanisms
    supported by the script
One such application is selective Tor usage, where the node runs on the normal
internet but transactions are broadcasted over Tor.
For an example script see [bitcoin-submittx](https://github.com/laanwj/bitcoin-submittx).
Privacy: Stream isolation for Tor
This release adds functionality to create a new circuit for every peer
connection, when the software is used with Tor. The new option,
-proxyrandomize, is on by default.
...[message truncated here by reddit bot]...
original: http://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2015-July/009400.html
submitted by bitcoin-devlist-bot to bitcoin_devlist [link] [comments]

Bitcoin Core 0.10.0 released | Wladimir | Feb 16 2015

Wladimir on Feb 16 2015:
Bitcoin Core version 0.10.0 is now available from:
https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/
This is a new major version release, bringing both new features and
bug fixes.
Please report bugs using the issue tracker at github:
https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/issues
The whole distribution is also available as torrent:
https://bitcoin.org/bin/0.10.0/bitcoin-0.10.0.torrent
magnet:?xt=urn:btih:170c61fe09dafecfbb97cb4dccd32173383f4e68&dn;=0.10.0&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.openbittorrent.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.publicbt.com%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.ccc.de%3A80%2Fannounce&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Ftracker.coppersurfer.tk%3A6969&tr;=udp%3A%2F%2Fopen.demonii.com%3A1337&ws;=https%3A%2F%2Fbitcoin.org%2Fbin%2F
Upgrading and downgrading

How to Upgrade
If you are running an older version, shut it down. Wait until it has completely
shut down (which might take a few minutes for older versions), then run the
installer (on Windows) or just copy over /Applications/Bitcoin-Qt (on Mac) or
bitcoind/bitcoin-qt (on Linux).
Downgrading warning
Because release 0.10.0 makes use of headers-first synchronization and parallel
block download (see further), the block files and databases are not
backwards-compatible with older versions of Bitcoin Core or other software:
  • Blocks will be stored on disk out of order (in the order they are
received, really), which makes it incompatible with some tools or
other programs. Reindexing using earlier versions will also not work
anymore as a result of this.
  • The block index database will now hold headers for which no block is
stored on disk, which earlier versions won't support.
If you want to be able to downgrade smoothly, make a backup of your entire data
directory. Without this your node will need start syncing (or importing from
bootstrap.dat) anew afterwards. It is possible that the data from a completely
synchronised 0.10 node may be usable in older versions as-is, but this is not
supported and may break as soon as the older version attempts to reindex.
This does not affect wallet forward or backward compatibility.
Notable changes

Faster synchronization
Bitcoin Core now uses 'headers-first synchronization'. This means that we first
ask peers for block headers (a total of 27 megabytes, as of December 2014) and
validate those. In a second stage, when the headers have been discovered, we
download the blocks. However, as we already know about the whole chain in
advance, the blocks can be downloaded in parallel from all available peers.
In practice, this means a much faster and more robust synchronization. On
recent hardware with a decent network link, it can be as little as 3 hours
for an initial full synchronization. You may notice a slower progress in the
very first few minutes, when headers are still being fetched and verified, but
it should gain speed afterwards.
A few RPCs were added/updated as a result of this:
  • getblockchaininfo now returns the number of validated headers in addition to
the number of validated blocks.
  • getpeerinfo lists both the number of blocks and headers we know we have in
common with each peer. While synchronizing, the heights of the blocks that we
have requested from peers (but haven't received yet) are also listed as
'inflight'.
  • A new RPC getchaintips lists all known branches of the block chain,
including those we only have headers for.
Transaction fee changes
This release automatically estimates how high a transaction fee (or how
high a priority) transactions require to be confirmed quickly. The default
settings will create transactions that confirm quickly; see the new
'txconfirmtarget' setting to control the tradeoff between fees and
confirmation times. Fees are added by default unless the 'sendfreetransactions'
setting is enabled.
Prior releases used hard-coded fees (and priorities), and would
sometimes create transactions that took a very long time to confirm.
Statistics used to estimate fees and priorities are saved in the
data directory in the fee_estimates.dat file just before
program shutdown, and are read in at startup.
New command line options for transaction fee changes:
  • -txconfirmtarget=n : create transactions that have enough fees (or priority)
so they are likely to begin confirmation within n blocks (default: 1). This setting
is over-ridden by the -paytxfee option.
  • -sendfreetransactions : Send transactions as zero-fee transactions if possible
(default: 0)
New RPC commands for fee estimation:
  • estimatefee nblocks : Returns approximate fee-per-1,000-bytes needed for
a transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not enough
transactions have been observed to compute a good estimate.
  • estimatepriority nblocks : Returns approximate priority needed for
a zero-fee transaction to begin confirmation within nblocks. Returns -1 if not
enough free transactions have been observed to compute a good
estimate.
RPC access control changes
Subnet matching for the purpose of access control is now done
by matching the binary network address, instead of with string wildcard matching.
For the user this means that -rpcallowip takes a subnet specification, which can be
  • a single IP address (e.g. 1.2.3.4 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde)
  • a network/CIDR (e.g. 1.2.3.0/24 or fe80::0000/64)
  • a network/netmask (e.g. 1.2.3.4/255.255.255.0 or fe80::0012:3456:789a:bcde/ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff:ffff)
An arbitrary number of -rpcallow arguments can be given. An incoming connection will be accepted if its origin address
matches one of them.
For example:
| 0.9.x and before | 0.10.x |
|--------------------------------------------|---------------------------------------|
| -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.1 (unchanged) |
| -rpcallowip=192.168.1.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.1.0/24 |
| -rpcallowip=192.168.* | -rpcallowip=192.168.0.0/16 |
| -rpcallowip=* (dangerous!) | -rpcallowip=::/0 (still dangerous!) |
Using wildcards will result in the rule being rejected with the following error in debug.log:
 Error: Invalid -rpcallowip subnet specification: *. Valid are a single IP (e.g. 1.2.3.4), a network/netmask (e.g. 1.2.3.4/255.255.255.0) or a network/CIDR (e.g. 1.2.3.4/24). 
REST interface
A new HTTP API is exposed when running with the -rest flag, which allows
unauthenticated access to public node data.
It is served on the same port as RPC, but does not need a password, and uses
plain HTTP instead of JSON-RPC.
Assuming a local RPC server running on port 8332, it is possible to request:
In every case, EXT can be bin (for raw binary data), hex (for hex-encoded
binary) or json.
For more details, see the doc/REST-interface.md document in the repository.
RPC Server "Warm-Up" Mode
The RPC server is started earlier now, before most of the expensive
intialisations like loading the block index. It is available now almost
immediately after starting the process. However, until all initialisations
are done, it always returns an immediate error with code -28 to all calls.
This new behaviour can be useful for clients to know that a server is already
started and will be available soon (for instance, so that they do not
have to start it themselves).
Improved signing security
For 0.10 the security of signing against unusual attacks has been
improved by making the signatures constant time and deterministic.
This change is a result of switching signing to use libsecp256k1
instead of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 is a cryptographic library
optimized for the curve Bitcoin uses which was created by Bitcoin
Core developer Pieter Wuille.
There exist attacks[1] against most ECC implementations where an
attacker on shared virtual machine hardware could extract a private
key if they could cause a target to sign using the same key hundreds
of times. While using shared hosts and reusing keys are inadvisable
for other reasons, it's a better practice to avoid the exposure.
OpenSSL has code in their source repository for derandomization
and reduction in timing leaks that we've eagerly wanted to use for a
long time, but this functionality has still not made its
way into a released version of OpenSSL. Libsecp256k1 achieves
significantly stronger protection: As far as we're aware this is
the only deployed implementation of constant time signing for
the curve Bitcoin uses and we have reason to believe that
libsecp256k1 is better tested and more thoroughly reviewed
than the implementation in OpenSSL.
[1] https://eprint.iacr.org/2014/161.pdf
Watch-only wallet support
The wallet can now track transactions to and from wallets for which you know
all addresses (or scripts), even without the private keys.
This can be used to track payments without needing the private keys online on a
possibly vulnerable system. In addition, it can help for (manual) construction
of multisig transactions where you are only one of the signers.
One new RPC, importaddress, is added which functions similarly to
importprivkey, but instead takes an address or script (in hexadecimal) as
argument. After using it, outputs credited to this address or script are
considered to be received, and transactions consuming these outputs will be
considered to be sent.
The following RPCs have optional support for watch-only:
getbalance, listreceivedbyaddress, listreceivedbyaccount,
listtransactions, listaccounts, listsinceblock, gettransaction. See the
RPC documentation for those methods for more information.
Compared to using getrawtransaction, this mechanism does not require
-txindex, scales better, integrates better with the wallet, and is compatible
with future block chain pruning functionality. It does mean that all relevant
addresses need to added to the wallet before the payment, though.
Consensus library
Starting from 0.10.0, the Bitcoin Core distribution includes a consensus library.
The purpose of this library is to make the verification functionality that is
critical to Bitcoin's consensus available to other applications, e.g. to language
bindings such as [python-bitcoinlib](https://pypi.python.org/pypi/python-bitcoinlib) or
alternative node implementations.
This library is called libbitcoinconsensus.so (or, .dll for Windows).
Its interface is defined in the C header [bitcoinconsensus.h](https://github.com/bitcoin/bitcoin/blob/0.10/src/script/bitcoinconsensus.h).
In its initial version the API includes two functions:
  • bitcoinconsensus_verify_script verifies a script. It returns whether the indicated input of the provided serialized transaction
correctly spends the passed scriptPubKey under additional constraints indicated by flags
  • bitcoinconsensus_version returns the API version, currently at an experimental 0
The functionality is planned to be extended to e.g. UTXO management in upcoming releases, but the interface
for existing methods should remain stable.
Standard script rules relaxed for P2SH addresses
The IsStandard() rules have been almost completely removed for P2SH
redemption scripts, allowing applications to make use of any valid
script type, such as "n-of-m OR y", hash-locked oracle addresses, etc.
While the Bitcoin protocol has always supported these types of script,
actually using them on mainnet has been previously inconvenient as
standard Bitcoin Core nodes wouldn't relay them to miners, nor would
most miners include them in blocks they mined.
bitcoin-tx
It has been observed that many of the RPC functions offered by bitcoind are
"pure functions", and operate independently of the bitcoind wallet. This
included many of the RPC "raw transaction" API functions, such as
createrawtransaction.
bitcoin-tx is a newly introduced command line utility designed to enable easy
manipulation of bitcoin transactions. A summary of its operation may be
obtained via "bitcoin-tx --help" Transactions may be created or signed in a
manner similar to the RPC raw tx API. Transactions may be updated, deleting
inputs or outputs, or appending new inputs and outputs. Custom scripts may be
easily composed using a simple text notation, borrowed from the bitcoin test
suite.
This tool may be used for experimenting with new transaction types, signing
multi-party transactions, and many other uses. Long term, the goal is to
deprecate and remove "pure function" RPC API calls, as those do not require a
server round-trip to execute.
Other utilities "bitcoin-key" and "bitcoin-script" have been proposed, making
key and script operations easily accessible via command line.
Mining and relay policy enhancements
Bitcoin Core's block templates are now for version 3 blocks only, and any mining
software relying on its getblocktemplate must be updated in parallel to use
libblkmaker either version 0.4.2 or any version from 0.5.1 onward.
If you are solo mining, this will affect you the moment you upgrade Bitcoin
Core, which must be done prior to BIP66 achieving its 951/1001 status.
If you are mining with the stratum mining protocol: this does not affect you.
If you are mining with the getblocktemplate protocol to a pool: this will affect
you at the pool operator's discretion, which must be no later than BIP66
achieving its 951/1001 status.
The prioritisetransaction RPC method has been added to enable miners to
manipulate the priority of transactions on an individual basis.
Bitcoin Core now supports BIP 22 long polling, so mining software can be
notified immediately of new templates rather than having to poll periodically.
Support for BIP 23 block proposals is now available in Bitcoin Core's
getblocktemplate method. This enables miners to check the basic validity of
their next block before expending work on it, reducing risks of accidental
hardforks or mining invalid blocks.
Two new options to control mining policy:
  • -datacarrier=0/1 : Relay and mine "data carrier" (OP_RETURN) transactions
if this is 1.
  • -datacarriersize=n : Maximum size, in bytes, we consider acceptable for
"data carrier" outputs.
The relay policy has changed to more properly implement the desired behavior of not
relaying free (or very low fee) transactions unless they have a priority above the
AllowFreeThreshold(), in which case they are relayed subject to the rate limiter.
BIP 66: strict DER encoding for signatures
Bitcoin Core 0.10 implements BIP 66, which introduces block version 3, and a new
consensus rule, which prohibits non-DER signatures. Such transactions have been
non-standard since Bitcoin v0.8.0 (released in February 2013), but were
technically still permitted inside blocks.
This change breaks the dependency on OpenSSL's signature parsing, and is
required if implementations would want to remove all of OpenSSL from the
consensus code.
The same miner-voting mechanism as in BIP 34 is used: when 751 out of a
sequence of 1001 blocks have version number 3 or higher, the new consensus
rule becomes active for those blocks. When 951 out of a sequence of 1001
blocks have version number 3 or higher, it becomes mandatory for all blocks.
Backward compatibility with current mining software is NOT provided, thus miners
should read the first paragraph of "Mining and relay policy enhancements" above.
0.10.0 Change log

Detailed release notes follow. This overview includes changes that affect external
behavior, not code moves, refactors or string updates.
RPC:
  • f923c07 Support IPv6 lookup in bitcoin-cli even when IPv6 only bound on localhost
  • b641c9c Fix addnode "onetry": Connect with OpenNetworkConnection
  • 171ca77 estimatefee / estimatepriority RPC methods
  • b750cf1 Remove cli functionality from bitcoind
  • f6984e8 Add "chain" to getmininginfo, improve help in getblockchaininfo
  • 99ddc6c Add nLocalServices info to RPC getinfo
  • cf0c47b Remove getwork() RPC call
  • 2a72d45 prioritisetransaction
  • e44fea5 Add an option -datacarrier to allow users to disable relaying/mining data carrier transactions
  • 2ec5a3d Prevent easy RPC memory exhaustion attack
  • d4640d7 Added argument to getbalance to include watchonly addresses and fixed errors in balance calculation
  • 83f3543 Added argument to listaccounts to include watchonly addresses
  • 952877e Showing 'involvesWatchonly' property for transactions returned by 'listtransactions' and 'listsinceblock'. It is only appended when the transaction involves a watchonly address
  • d7d5d23 Added argument to listtransactions and listsinceblock to include watchonly addresses
  • f87ba3d added includeWatchonly argument to 'gettransaction' because it affects balance calculation
  • 0fa2f88 added includedWatchonly argument to listreceivedbyaddress/...account
  • 6c37f7f getrawchangeaddress: fail when keypool exhausted and wallet locked
  • ff6a7af getblocktemplate: longpolling support
  • c4a321f Add peerid to getpeerinfo to allow correlation with the logs
  • 1b4568c Add vout to ListTransactions output
  • b33bd7a Implement "getchaintips" RPC command to monitor blockchain forks
  • 733177e Remove size limit in RPC client, keep it in server
  • 6b5b7cb Categorize rpc help overview
  • 6f2c26a Closely track mempool byte total. Add "getmempoolinfo" RPC
  • aa82795 Add detailed network info to getnetworkinfo RPC
  • 01094bd Don't reveal whether password is <20 or >20 characters in RPC
  • 57153d4 rpc: Compute number of confirmations of a block from block height
  • ff36cbe getnetworkinfo: export local node's client sub-version string
  • d14d7de SanitizeString: allow '(' and ')'
  • 31d6390 Fixed setaccount accepting foreign address
  • b5ec5fe update getnetworkinfo help with subversion
  • ad6e601 RPC additions after headers-first
  • 33dfbf5 rpc: Fix leveldb iterator leak, and flush before gettxoutsetinfo
  • 2aa6329 Enable customising node policy for datacarrier data size with a -datacarriersize option
  • f877aaa submitblock: Use a temporary CValidationState to determine accurately the outcome of ProcessBlock
  • e69a587 submitblock: Support for returning specific rejection reasons
  • af82884 Add "warmup mode" for RPC server
  • e2655e0 Add unauthenticated HTTP REST interface to public blockchain data
  • 683dc40 Disable SSLv3 (in favor of TLS) for the RPC client and server
  • 44b4c0d signrawtransaction: validate private key
  • 9765a50 Implement BIP 23 Block Proposal
  • f9de17e Add warning comment to getinfo
Command-line options:
  • ee21912 Use netmasks instead of wildcards for IP address matching
  • deb3572 Add -rpcbind option to allow binding RPC port on a specific interface
  • 96b733e Add -version option to get just the version
  • 1569353 Add -stopafterblockimport option
  • 77cbd46 Let -zapwallettxes recover transaction meta data
  • 1c750db remove -tor compatibility code (only allow -onion)
  • 4aaa017 rework help messages for fee-related options
  • 4278b1d Clarify error message when invalid -rpcallowip
  • 6b407e4 -datadir is now allowed in config files
  • bdd5b58 Add option -sysperms to disable 077 umask (create new files with system default umask)
  • cbe39a3 Add "bitcoin-tx" command line utility and supporting modules
  • dbca89b Trigger -alertnotify if network is upgrading without you
  • ad96e7c Make -reindex cope with out-of-order blocks
  • 16d5194 Skip reindexed blocks individually
  • ec01243 --tracerpc option for regression tests
  • f654f00 Change -genproclimit default to 1
  • 3c77714 Make -proxy set all network types, avoiding a connect leak
  • 57be955 Remove -printblock, -printblocktree, and -printblockindex
  • ad3d208 remove -maxorphanblocks config parameter since it is no longer functional
Block and transaction handling:
  • 7a0e84d ProcessGetData(): abort if a block file is missing from disk
  • 8c93bf4 LoadBlockIndexDB(): Require block db reindex if any blk*.dat files are missing
  • 77339e5 Get rid of the static chainMostWork (optimization)
  • 4e0eed8 Allow ActivateBestChain to release its lock on cs_main
  • 18e7216 Push cs_mains down in ProcessBlock
  • fa126ef Avoid undefined behavior using CFlatData in CScript serialization
  • 7f3b4e9 Relax IsStandard rules for pay-to-script-hash transactions
  • c9a0918 Add a skiplist to the CBlockIndex structure
  • bc42503 Use unordered_map for CCoinsViewCache with salted hash (optimization)
  • d4d3fbd Do not flush the cache after every block outside of IBD (optimization)
  • ad08d0b Bugfix: make CCoinsViewMemPool support pruned entries in underlying cache
  • 5734d4d Only remove actualy failed blocks from setBlockIndexValid
  • d70bc52 Rework block processing benchmark code
  • 714a3e6 Only keep setBlockIndexValid entries that are possible improvements
  • ea100c7 Reduce maximum coinscache size during verification (reduce memory usage)
  • 4fad8e6 Reject transactions with excessive numbers of sigops
  • b0875eb Allow BatchWrite to destroy its input, reducing copying (optimization)
  • 92bb6f2 Bypass reloading blocks from disk (optimization)
  • 2e28031 Perform CVerifyDB on pcoinsdbview instead of pcoinsTip (reduce memory usage)
  • ab15b2e Avoid copying undo data (optimization)
  • 341735e Headers-first synchronization
  • afc32c5 Fix rebuild-chainstate feature and improve its performance
  • e11b2ce Fix large reorgs
  • ed6d1a2 Keep information about all block files in memory
  • a48f2d6 Abstract context-dependent block checking from acceptance
  • 7e615f5 Fixed mempool sync after sending a transaction
  • 51ce901 Improve chainstate/blockindex disk writing policy
  • a206950 Introduce separate flushing modes
  • 9ec75c5 Add a locking mechanism to IsInitialBlockDownload to ensure it never goes from false to true
  • 868d041 Remove coinbase-dependant transactions during reorg
  • 723d12c Remove txn which are invalidated by coinbase maturity during reorg
  • 0cb8763 Check against MANDATORY flags prior to accepting to mempool
  • 8446262 Reject headers that build on an invalid parent
  • 008138c Bugfix: only track UTXO modification after lookup
P2P protocol and network code:
  • f80cffa Do not trigger a DoS ban if SCRIPT_VERIFY_NULLDUMMY fails
  • c30329a Add testnet DNS seed of Alex Kotenko
  • 45a4baf Add testnet DNS seed of Andreas Schildbach
  • f1920e8 Ping automatically every 2 minutes (unconditionally)
  • 806fd19 Allocate receive buffers in on the fly
  • 6ecf3ed Display unknown commands received
  • aa81564 Track peers' available blocks
  • caf6150 Use async name resolving to improve net thread responsiveness
  • 9f4da19 Use pong receive time rather than processing time
  • 0127a9b remove SOCKS4 support from core and GUI, use SOCKS5
  • 40f5cb8 Send rejects and apply DoS scoring for errors in direct block validation
  • dc942e6 Introduce whitelisted peers
  • c994d2e prevent SOCKET leak in BindListenPort()
  • a60120e Add built-in seeds for .onion
  • 60dc8e4 Allow -onlynet=onion to be used
  • 3a56de7 addrman: Do not propagate obviously poor addresses onto the network
  • 6050ab6 netbase: Make SOCKS5 negotiation interruptible
  • 604ee2a Remove tx from AlreadyAskedFor list once we receive it, not when we process it
  • efad808 Avoid reject message feedback loops
  • 71697f9 Separate protocol versioning from clientversion
  • 20a5f61 Don't relay alerts to peers before version negotiation
  • b4ee0bd Introduce preferred download peers
  • 845c86d Do not use third party services for IP detection
  • 12a49ca Limit the number of new addressses to accumulate
  • 35e408f Regard connection failures as attempt for addrman
  • a3a7317 Introduce 10 minute block download timeout
  • 3022e7d Require sufficent priority for relay of free transactions
  • 58fda4d Update seed IPs, based on bitcoin.sipa.be crawler data
  • 18021d0 Remove bitnodes.io from dnsseeds.
Validation:
  • 6fd7ef2 Also switch the (unused) verification code to low-s instead of even-s
  • 584a358 Do merkle root and txid duplicates check simultaneously
  • 217a5c9 When transaction outputs exceed inputs, show the offending amounts so as to aid debugging
  • f74fc9b Print input index when signature validation fails, to aid debugging
  • 6fd59ee script.h: set_vch() should shift a >32 bit value
  • d752ba8 Add SCRIPT_VERIFY_SIGPUSHONLY (BIP62 rule 2) (test only)
  • 698c6ab Add SCRIPT_VERIFY_MINIMALDATA (BIP62 rules 3 and 4) (test only)
  • ab9edbd script: create sane error return codes for script validation and remove logging
  • 219a147 script: check ScriptError values in script tests
  • 0391423 Discourage NOPs reserved for soft-fork upgrades
  • 98b135f Make STRICTENC invalid pubkeys fail the script rather than the opcode
  • 307f7d4 Report script evaluation failures in log and reject messages
  • ace39db consensus: guard against openssl's new strict DER checks
  • 12b7c44 Improve robustness of DER recoding code
  • 76ce5c8 fail immediately on an empty signature
Build system:
  • f25e3ad Fix build in OS X 10.9
  • 65e8ba4 build: Switch to non-recursive make
  • 460b32d build: fix broken boost chrono check on some platforms
  • 9ce0774 build: Fix windows configure when using --with-qt-libdir
  • ea96475 build: Add mention of --disable-wallet to bdb48 error messages
  • 1dec09b depends: add shared dependency builder
  • c101c76 build: Add --with-utils (bitcoin-cli and bitcoin-tx, default=yes). Help string consistency tweaks. Target sanity check fix
  • e432a5f build: add option for reducing exports (v2)
  • 6134b43 Fixing condition 'sabotaging' MSVC build
  • af0bd5e osx: fix signing to make Gatekeeper happy (again)
  • a7d1f03 build: fix dynamic boost check when --with-boost= is used
  • d5fd094 build: fix qt test build when libprotobuf is in a non-standard path
  • 2cf5f16 Add libbitcoinconsensus library
  • 914868a build: add a deterministic dmg signer
  • 2d375fe depends: bump openssl to 1.0.1k
  • b7a4ecc Build: Only check for boost when building code that requires it
Wallet:
  • b33d1f5 Use fee/priority estimates in wallet CreateTransaction
  • 4b7b1bb Sanity checks for estimates
  • c898846 Add support for watch-only addresses
  • d5087d1 Use script matching rather than destination matching for watch-only
  • d88af56 Fee fixes
  • a35b55b Dont run full check every time we decrypt wallet
  • 3a7c348 Fix make_change to not create half-satoshis
  • f606bb9 fix a possible memory leak in CWalletDB::Recover
  • 870da77 fix possible memory leaks in CWallet::EncryptWallet
  • ccca27a Watch-only fixes
  • 9b1627d [Wallet] Reduce minTxFee for transaction creation to 1000 satoshis
  • a53fd41 Deterministic signing
  • 15ad0b5 Apply AreSane() checks to the fees from the network
  • 11855c1 Enforce minRelayTxFee on wallet created tx and add a maxtxfee option
GUI:
  • c21c74b osx: Fix missing dock menu with qt5
  • b90711c Fix Transaction details shows wrong To:
  • 516053c Make links in 'About Bitcoin Core' clickable
  • bdc83e8 Ensure payment request network matches client network
  • 65f78a1 Add GUI view of peer information
  • 06a91d9 VerifyDB progress reporting
  • fe6bff2 Add BerkeleyDB version info to RPCConsole
  • b917555 PeerTableModel: Fix potential deadlock. #4296
  • dff0e3b Improve rpc console history behavior
  • 95a9383 Remove CENT-fee-rule from coin control completely
  • 56b07d2 Allow setting listen via GUI
  • d95ba75 Log messages with type>QtDebugMsg as non-debug
  • 8969828 New status bar Unit Display Control and related changes
  • 674c070 seed OpenSSL PNRG with Windows event data
  • 509f926 Payment request parsing on startup now only changes network if a valid network name is specified
  • acd432b Prevent balloon-spam after rescan
  • 7007402 Implement SI-style (thin space) thoudands separator
  • 91cce17 Use fixed-point arithmetic in amount spinbox
  • bdba2dd Remove an obscure option no-one cares about
  • bd0aa10 Replace the temporary file hack currently used to change Bitcoin-Qt's dock icon (OS X) with a buffer-based solution
  • 94e1b9e Re-work overviewpage UI
  • 8bfdc9a Better looking trayicon
  • b197bf3 disable tray interactions when client model set to 0
  • 1c5f0af Add column Watch-only to transactions list
  • 21f139b Fix tablet crash. closes #4854
  • e84843c Broken addresses on command line no longer trigger testnet
  • a49f11d Change splash screen to normal window
  • 1f9be98 Disable App Nap on OSX 10.9+
  • 27c3e91 Add proxy to options overridden if necessary
  • 4bd1185 Allow "emergency" shutdown during startup
  • d52f072 Don't show wallet options in the preferences menu when running with -disablewallet
  • 6093aa1 Qt: QProgressBar CPU-Issue workaround
  • 0ed9675 [Wallet] Add global boolean whether to send free transactions (default=true)
  • ed3e5e4 [Wallet] Add global boolean whether to pay at least the custom fee (default=true)
  • e7876b2 [Wallet] Prevent user from paying a non-sense fee
  • c1c9d5b Add Smartfee to GUI
  • e0a25c5 Make askpassphrase dialog behave more sanely
  • 94b362d On close of splashscreen interrupt verifyDB
  • b790d13 English translation update
  • 8543b0d Correct tooltip on address book page
Tests:
  • b41e594 Fix script test handling of empty scripts
  • d3a33fc Test CHECKMULTISIG with m == 0 and n == 0
  • 29c1749 Let tx (in)valid tests use any SCRIPT_VERIFY flag
  • 6380180 Add rejection of non-null CHECKMULTISIG dummy values
  • 21bf3d2 Add tests for BoostAsioToCNetAddr
  • b5ad5e7 Add Python test for -rpcbind and -rpcallowip
  • 9ec0306 Add CODESEPARATOFindAndDelete() tests
  • 75ebced Added many rpc wallet tests
  • 0193fb8 Allow multiple regression tests to run at once
  • 92a6220 Hook up sanity checks
  • 3820e01 Extend and move all crypto tests to crypto_tests.cpp
  • 3f9a019 added list/get received by address/ account tests
  • a90689f Remove timing-based signature cache unit test
  • 236982c Add skiplist unit tests
  • f4b00be Add CChain::GetLocator() unit test
  • b45a6e8 Add test for getblocktemplate longpolling
  • cdf305e Set -discover=0 in regtest framework
  • ed02282 additional test for OP_SIZE in script_valid.json
  • 0072d98 script tests: BOOLAND, BOOLOR decode to integer
  • 833ff16 script tests: values that overflow to 0 are true
  • 4cac5db script tests: value with trailing 0x00 is true
  • 89101c6 script test: test case for 5-byte bools
  • d2d9dc0 script tests: add tests for CHECKMULTISIG limits
  • d789386 Add "it works" test for bitcoin-tx
  • df4d61e Add bitcoin-tx tests
  • aa41ac2 Test IsPushOnly() with invalid push
  • 6022b5d Make script_{valid,invalid}.json validation flags configurable
  • 8138cbe Add automatic script test generation, and actual checksig tests
  • ed27e53 Add coins_tests with a large randomized CCoinViewCache test
  • 9df9cf5 Make SCRIPT_VERIFY_STRICTENC compatible with BIP62
  • dcb9846 Extend getchaintips RPC test
  • 554147a Ensure MINIMALDATA invalid tests can only fail one way
  • dfeec18 Test every numeric-accepting opcode for correct handling of the numeric minimal encoding rule
  • 2b62e17 Clearly separate PUSHDATA and numeric argument MINIMALDATA tests
  • 16d78bd Add valid invert of invalid every numeric opcode tests
  • f635269 tests: enable alertnotify test for Windows
  • 7a41614 tests: allow rpc-tests to get filenames for bitcoind and bitcoin-cli from the environment
  • 5122ea7 tests: fix forknotify.py on windows
  • fa7f8cd tests: remove old pull-tester scripts
  • 7667850 tests: replace the old (unused since Travis) tests with new rpc test scripts
  • f4e0aef Do signature-s negation inside the tests
  • 1837987 Optimize -regtest setgenerate block generation
  • 2db4c8a Fix node ranges in the test framework
  • a8b2ce5 regression test only setmocktime RPC call
  • daf03e7 RPC tests: create initial chain with specific timestamps
  • 8656dbb Port/fix txnmall.sh regression test
  • ca81587 Test the exact order of CHECKMULTISIG sig/pubkey evaluation
  • 7357893 Prioritize and display -testsafemode status in UI
  • f321d6b Add key generation/verification to ECC sanity check
  • 132ea9b miner_tests: Disable checkpoints so they don't fail the subsidy-change test
  • bc6cb41 QA RPC tests: Add tests block block proposals
  • f67a9ce Use deterministically generated script tests
  • 11d7a7d [RPC] add rpc-test for http keep-alive (persistent connections)
  • 34318d7 RPC-test based on invalidateblock for mempool coinbase spends
  • 76ec867 Use actually valid transactions for script tests
  • c8589bf Add actual signature tests
  • e2677d7 Fix smartfees test for change to relay policy
  • 263b65e tests: run sanity checks in tests too
Miscellaneous:
  • 122549f Fix incorrect checkpoint data for testnet3
  • 5bd02cf Log used config file to debug.log on startup
  • 68ba85f Updated Debian example bitcoin.conf with config from wiki + removed some cruft and updated comments
  • e5ee8f0 Remove -beta suffix
  • 38405ac Add comment regarding experimental-use service bits
  • be873f6 Issue warning if collecting RandSeed data failed
  • 8ae973c Allocate more space if necessary in RandSeedAddPerfMon
  • 675bcd5 Correct comment for 15-of-15 p2sh script size
  • fda3fed libsecp256k1 integration
  • 2e36866 Show nodeid instead of addresses in log (for anonymity) unless otherwise requested
  • cd01a5e Enable paranoid corruption checks in LevelDB >= 1.16
  • 9365937 Add comment about never updating nTimeOffset past 199 samples
  • 403c1bf contrib: remove getwork-based pyminer (as getwork API call has been removed)
  • 0c3e101 contrib: Added systemd .service file in order to help distributions integrate bitcoind
  • 0a0878d doc: Add new DNSseed policy
  • 2887bff Update coding style and add .clang-format
  • 5cbda4f Changed LevelDB cursors to use scoped pointers to ensure destruction when going out of scope
  • b4a72a7 contrib/linearize: split output files based on new-timestamp-year or max-file-size
  • e982b57 Use explicit fflush() instead of setvbuf()
  • 234bfbf contrib: Add init scripts and docs for Upstart and OpenRC
  • 01c2807 Add warning about the merkle-tree algorithm duplicate txid flaw
  • d6712db Also create pid file in non-daemon mode
  • 772ab0e contrib: use batched JSON-RPC in linarize-hashes (optimization)
  • 7ab4358 Update bash-completion for v0.10
  • 6e6a36c contrib: show pull # in prompt for github-merge script
  • 5b9f842 Upgrade leveldb to 1.18, make chainstate databases compatible between ARM and x86 (issue #2293)
  • 4e7c219 Catch UTXO set read errors and shutdown
  • 867c600 Catch LevelDB errors during flush
  • 06ca065 Fix CScriptID(const CScript& in) in empty script case
Credits

Thanks to everyone who contributed to this release:
  • 21E14
  • Adam Weiss
  • Aitor Pazos
  • Alexander Jeng
  • Alex Morcos
  • Alon Muroch
  • Andreas Schildbach
  • Andrew Poelstra
  • Andy Alness
  • Ashley Holman
  • Benedict Chan
  • Ben Holden-Crowther
  • Bryan Bishop
  • BtcDrak
  • Christian von Roques
  • Clinton Christian
  • Cory Fields
  • Cozz Lovan
  • daniel
  • Daniel Kraft
  • David Hill
  • Derek701
  • dexX7
  • dllud
  • Dominyk Tiller
  • Doug
  • elichai
  • elkingtowa
  • ENikS
  • Eric Shaw
  • Federico Bond
  • Francis GASCHET
  • Gavin Andresen
  • Giuseppe Mazzotta
  • Glenn Willen
  • Gregory Maxwell
  • gubatron
  • HarryWu
  • himynameismartin
  • Huang Le
  • Ian Carroll
  • imharrywu
  • Jameson Lopp
  • Janusz Lenar
  • JaSK
  • Jeff Garzik
  • JL2035
  • Johnathan Corgan
  • Jonas Schnelli
  • jtimon
  • Julian Haight
  • Kamil Domanski
  • kazcw
  • kevin
  • kiwigb
  • Kosta Zertsekel
  • LongShao007
  • Luke Dashjr
  • Mark Friedenbach
  • Mathy Vanvoorden
  • Matt Corallo
  • Matthew Bogosian
  • Micha
  • Michael Ford
  • Mike Hearn
  • mrbandrews
  • mruddy
  • ntrgn
  • Otto Allmendinger
  • paveljanik
  • Pavel Vasin
  • Peter Todd
  • phantomcircuit
  • Philip Kaufmann
  • Pieter Wuille
  • pryds
  • randy-waterhouse
  • R E Broadley
  • Rose Toomey
  • Ross Nicoll
  • Roy Badami
  • Ruben Dario Ponticelli
  • Rune K. Svendsen
  • Ryan X. Charles
  • Saivann
  • sandakersmann
  • SergioDemianLerner
  • shshshsh
  • sinetek
  • Stuart Cardall
  • Suhas Daftuar
  • Tawanda Kembo
  • Teran McKinney
  • tm314159
  • Tom Harding
  • Trevin Hofmann
  • Whit J
  • Wladimir J. van der Laan
  • Yoichi Hirai
  • Zak Wilcox
As well as everyone that helped translating on [Transifex](https://www.transifex.com/projects/p/bitcoin/).
Also lots of thanks to the bitcoin.org website team David A. Harding and Saivann Carignan.
Wladimir
original: http://lists.linuxfoundation.org/pipermail/bitcoin-dev/2015-February/007480.html
submitted by bitcoin-devlist-bot to bitcoin_devlist [link] [comments]

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How to use Bitcoin Stealer Malware Tutorial + Download link OMERTA CC

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