Bitcoin is presently standard. While the level headed discussion on whether it's a theoretical air pocket or the best thing since the web proceeds with, one thing that is undeniable is that it has pulled in a lot of speculator enthusiasm to cryptographic money and computerized resources. submitted by
Those genuine about putting resources into computerized resources realize that there are numerous contemplations past Bitcoin. With the utilization of Python and a few information investigation, financial specialists can arm themselves with the fundamental strides on the best way to make a portfolio advanced to their individual hazard profile. Putting resources into this developing resource class is never a beyond any doubt wager, however this system ( in light of present day portfolio hypothesis) will enable you to all the more unhesitatingly expand potential returns while lessening your portfolio instability.
The perspectives contained in this post are my own and don't speak to speculation exhort, the perspectives of my boss or any other individual. This substance is planned to be utilized and should be utilized for enlightening purposes as it were. It is essential to do your own particular investigation before making any speculation in light of your very own conditions. You should accept autonomous money related counsel from an expert regarding, or freely inquire about and confirm, any data that you find in this post and wish to depend upon, regardless of whether to make a speculation choice or something else.
This article is indented for those open to utilizing Python for scripting and information examination. On the off chance that you are hoping to learn Python, I propose looking at the instructional exercises on CodeAcademy and the book Python for Data Analysis by Wes McKinney.
Stage 1 — Get the noteworthy information
Great information is vital! Without information, this activity would not be conceivable. There are various spots where you can discover memorable crypto — data relying upon what you intend to hold. A few illustrations incorporate Coindesk, Quandl, Coinmetrics.io, Coinmarketcap, and a significant number of the trades.
The case in this article utilizes memorable information, for example, that found on the Bitfinex or Poloniex trades. Utilizing people in general programming interface orders recorded here, you can download notable information in 4 hour obstructs with High, Low, Open, Close, Volume and Weighted Price for the many sets traded on the website. The emphasis here is on enhancing the portfolio returns against the US Dollar. On account of that, this uses information for sets that exchange specifically against the USD or USD Tether (tie is an intricate definition that I won't endeavor to jump into here).
One strategy to achieve this is to utilize the Python library urllib or solicitations to call the url and concentrate the information for the coveted monetary forms. Spare your information extricates locally to abstain from expecting to get them once more, ideally in a csv.
Some lovely HLOCV information
Stage 2 — Wrangle that information
The following stage is to solidify your crude information removes into a usable organization. Pandas is an incredible method to sort out your information. A straightforward method to join the information removes is by circling through the index where you store them and affixing them all to a focal dataframe. See the illustrative scrap underneath.
Case of a circle to join crude concentrates
Utilize this point as a chance to clean your information. This implies arranging by timestamp, checking for NaNs or Null esteems to fill or evacuate. You will likewise need to evacuate pointless information and change the arrangement with the goal that it can without much of a stretch be separated into clusters in view of timestamp, cash and cost.
Presently for the fun part — running a Monte Carlo style reproduction to adjust the perfect portfolio weightings! The thought here is to utilize irregular number age to reenact more than 30,000 portfolios with different holding setups. This illustration utilizes Bitcoin, Ethereum, Ethereum Classic, Litecoin, Stellar, Monero and ZCash. The era utilized was January 1 to November 1, 2017.
Case of streamlining process
The objective is to discover the portfolio setup with the most astounding Sharpe proportion, a proportion of a portfolio's arrival in respect to its instability.
Plotting the outcomes utilizing matplotlib should give you something like this:
Consequences of a streamlining reproduction with a red star on the reenactment with the most elevated Sharpe and green star on the recreation with the least instability. The shading bar is relative Sharpe proportion.
The outcomes from this reproduction can illuminate your next purchase or offer choice. Taking a gander at a perception of the yield , the reproduction with the most elevated Sharpe proportion is featured with a red star and the reenactment with the least instability is featured with a green star. For those intrigued, the recreation with the best chronicled Sharpe had the accompanying weights :
And so on 6.9683%
These outcomes don't mirror the present market! The model indicated was restricted to information up to late October and in this manner would likely look altogether different when figured today given the current BTC rally.
How might you utilize this in practice? — Rebalance Regularly!
Going ahead, this strategy can be utilized all the time to rebalance your portfolio. While backtesting this methodology, it is essential to consider how regularly you should rebalance. Additional rebalancing may prompt an all the more finely-tuned approach yet it likewise implies higher exchanging expenses. Additionally consider how much notable information is as yet applicable to the present patterns. For instance, Bitcoin information from 2013 won't not be that significant in the present market condition.
A debt of gratitude is in order for setting aside the opportunity to peruse this article. I want to post more later on about utilizing Python to enhance the contributing procedure.
Reposted from the Bitcoin development list on mailarchive.com. The author is Peter Todd. https://www.mail-archive.com/[email protected]/msg04388.html
Tree-chains Preliminary Summary
Bitcoin doesn't scale. There's a lot of issues at hand here, but the most fundemental of them is that to create a block you need to update the state of the UTXO set, and the way Bitcoin is designed means that updating that state requires bandwidth equal to all the transaction volume to keep up with the changes to what set. Long story short, we get O(n2)
scaling, which is just plain infeasible.
So let's split up the transaction volume so every individual miner only needs to keep up with some portion. In a rough sense that's what alt-coins do - all the tipping microtransactions on Doge never have to hit the Bitcoin blockchain for instance, reducing pressure on the latter. But moving value between chains is inconvenient; right now moving value requires trusted third parties. Two-way atomic chain transfers does help here, but as recent discussions on the topic showed there's all sorts of edge cases with reorganizations that are tricky to handle; at worst they could lead to inflation.
So what's the underlying issue there? The chains are too independent. Even with merge-mining there's no real link between one chain and another with regard to the order of transactions. Secondly merge-mining suffers from 51% attacks if the chain being merge-mined doesn't have a majority of total hashing power... which kinda defeats the point if we're worried about miner scalability.
Blocks and the TXO set as a binary radix tree
So how can we do better? Start with the "big picture" idea and take the linear blockchain and turn it into a tree:
┌───────┴───────┐ ┌───┴───┐ ┌───┴───┐ ┌─┴─┐ ┌─┴─┐ ┌─┴─┐ ┌─┴─┐ ┌┴┐ ┌┴┐ ┌┴┐ ┌┴┐ ┌┴┐ ┌┴┐ ┌┴┐ ┌┴┐
Obviously if we could somehow split up the UTXO set such that individual miners/full nodes only had to deal with subsets of this tree we could significantly reduce the bandwidth that any one miner would need to process. Every transaction output would get a unique identifier, say txoutid=H(txout) and we put those outputs in blocks appropriately.
We can't just wave a magic wand and say that every block has the above structure and all miners co-ordinate to generate all blocks in one go. Instead we'll do something akin to merge mining. Start with a linear blockchain with ten blocks. Arrows indicate hashing:
a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ⇽ a4 ⇽ a5 ⇽ a6 ⇽ a7 ⇽ a8 ⇽ a9
The following data structure could be the block header in this scheme. We'll simplify things a bit and make up our own; obviously with some more effort the standard Satoshi structures can be used too:
struct BlockHeader: uint256 prevBlockHash uint256 blockContentsHash uint256 target uint256 nonce uint time
For now we'll say this is a pure-proof-of-publication chain, so our block contents are very simple:
struct BlockContents: uint256 merkleRoot
As usual the PoW is valid if H(blockHeader) < blockHeader.target. Every block creates new txouts, and the union of all such txouts is the txout set. As shown previously(1) this basic proof-of-publication functionality is sufficient to build a crypto-currency even without actually validating the contents of the so-called transaction outputs.
The scalability of this sucks, so let's add two more chains below the root to start forming a tree. For fairness we'll only allow miners to either mine a, a+b, or a+c; attempting to mine a block with both the b and c chains simultaneously is not allowed.
struct BlockContents: uint256 childBlockHash # may be null bool childSide # left or right uint256 merkleRoot
Furthermore we shard the TXO space by defining txoid = H(txout) and allowing any txout in chain a, and only txouts with LSB=0 in b, LSB=1 in c; the beginning of a binary radix tree. With some variance thrown in we get the following:
b0 ⇽⇽ b1 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ b2 ⇽ b3 ⇽ b4 ⇽ b5 ⇽ b6 ⇽ b7 ⇽ b8 ↙ ↙ a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ a4 ⇽ a5 ⇽ a6 ⇽ a7 ⇽ a8 ↖ ↖ ↖ ↖ ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2 ⇽ c3 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ c4 ⇽ c5 ⇽ c6 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ c7
We now have three different versions of the TXO set: ∑a, ∑a + ∑b, and ∑a+∑c. Each of these versions is consistent in that for a given txoutid prefix we can achieve consensus over the contents of the TXO set. Of course, this definition is recursive:
a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ a4 ⇽ a5 ⇽ a6 ⇽ a7 ⇽ a8 ↖ ↖ ↖ ↖ ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2 ⇽ c3 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ c4 ⇽ c5 ⇽ c6 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ c7 ↖ ↖ ↖ ↖ ↖ d0 ⇽ d1 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ d2 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ d3 ⇽ d4 ⇽⇽⇽ d5 ⇽⇽⇽⇽ d6
Unicode unfortunately lacks 3D box drawing at present, so I've only shown left-sided child chains.
Herding the child-chains
If all we were doing was publishing data, this would suffice. But what if we want to syncronize our actions? For instance, we may want a new txout to only be published in one chain if the corresponding txout in another is marked spent. What we want is a reasonable rule for child-chains to be invalidated when their parents are invalidated so as to co-ordinate actions across distant child chains by relying on the existance of their parents.
We start by removing the per-chain difficulties, leaving only a single master proof-of-work target. Solutions less than target itself are considered valid in the root chain, less than the target << 1 in the root's children, << 2 in the children's children etc. In children that means the header no longer contains a time, nonce, or target; the values in the root block header are used instead:
struct ChildBlockHeader: uint256 prevChildBlockHash uint256 blockContentsHash
For a given chain we always choose the one with the most total work. But to get our ordering primitive we'll add a second, somewhat brutal, rule: Parent always wins.
We achieve this moving the child block header into the parent block itself:
struct BlockContents: ChildBlockHeader childHeader # may be null (zeroed out) bool childSide # left or right bytes txout
Let's look at how this works. We start with a parent and a child chain:
a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ↖ ↖ b0 ⇽ b1 ⇽ b2 ⇽ b3 ⇽ b4 ⇽ b5
First there is the obvious scenario where the parent chain is reorganized. Here our node learns of a2 ⇽ a3' ⇽ a4':
⇽ a3' ⇽ a4' a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ⇽ X ↖ ↖ b0 ⇽ b1 ⇽ b2 ⇽ b3 ⇽ X
Block a3 is killed, resulting in the orphaning of b3, b4, and b5:
a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3' ⇽ a4' ↖ b0 ⇽ b1 ⇽ b2
The second case is when a parent has a conflicting idea about what the child chian is. Here our node receives block a5, which has a conflicting idea of what child b2 is:
a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3' ⇽ a4' ⇽ a5 ↖ ↖ b0 ⇽ b1 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ b2' ⇽ b2 ⇽ X
As the parent always wins, even multiple blocks can get killed off this way:
a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ⇽ a4 ↖ b0 ⇽ b1 ⇽ b2 ⇽ b3 ⇽ b4 ⇽ b5 ⇽ b6 ⇽ b7
a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ⇽ a4 ⇽ a5 ↖ ↖ b0 ⇽ b1 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ b2' ⇽ b2 ⇽ b3 ⇽ b4 ⇽ b5 ⇽ X
This behavior is easier to understand if you say instead that the node learned about block b2', which had more total work than b2 as the sum total of work done in the parent chain in blocks specifying the that particular child chain is considered before comparing the total work done in only the child chain.
It's important to remember that the parent blockchain has and validates both childrens' block headers; it is not possible to mine a block with an invalid secret of child headers. For instance with the following:
a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ⇽ a4 ↖ ↖ ↖ b0 ⇽ b1 ⇽ b2 ⇽ b3 ⇽ b4 ⇽ b5 ⇽ b6 ⇽ b7
I can't mine block a5 that says following b2 is b2' in an attempt to kill off b2 through b7.
Token transfer with tree-chains
How can we make use of this? Lets start with a simple discrete token transfer system. Transactions are simply:
struct Transaction: uint256 prevTxHash script prevPubKey script scriptSig uint256 scriptPubKeyHash
We'll say transactions go in the tree-chain according to their prevTxHash, with the depth in the tree equal to the depth of the previous output. This means that you can prove an output was created by the existance of that transaction in the block with prefix matching H(tx.prevTxHash), and you can prove the transaction output is unspent by the non-existance of a transaction in the block with prefix matching H(tx).
With our above re-organization rule everything is consistent too: if block bi contains tx1, then the corresponding block c_j can contain a valid tx2 spending tx1 provided that c_j depends on a_p and there is a path from a_p to b
(i+k). Here's an example, starting with tx1 in c2:
b0 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ b1 ↙ a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2
Block b2 below can't yet contain tx2 because there is no path:
b0 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ b1 ⇽ b2 ↙ a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2
However now c3 is found, whose PoW solution was also valid for a3:
b0 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ b1 ⇽ b2 ↙ a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ↖ ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2 ⇽ c3
Now b3 can contain tx2, as b3 will also attempt to create a4, which depends on a3:
b0 ⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ b1 ⇽ b2 ⇽ b3 ↙ a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ↖ ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2 ⇽ c3
Now that a3 exists, block c2 can only be killed if a3 is, which would also kill b3 and thus destroy tx2.
Proving transaction output validity in a token transfer system
How cheap is it to prove the entire history of a token is valid from genesis? Perhaps surprisingly, without any cryptographic moon-math the cost is only linear!
Remember that a transaction in a given chain has committed to the chain that it can be spent in. If Alice is to prove to Bob that the output she gave him is valid, she simply needs to prove that for every transaction in the histroy of the token the token was created, remained unspent, then finally was spent. Proving a token remained unspent between blocks b_n and b_m is trivially possible in linear size. Once the token is spent nothing about blocks beyond b_m is required. Even if miners do not validate transactions at all the proof size remains linear provided blocks themselves have a maximum size - at worst the proof contains some invalid transactions that can be shown to be false spends.
While certainly inconvenient, it is interesting how such a simple system appears to in theory scale to unlimited numbers of transactions and with an appropriate exchange rate move unlimited amounts of value. A possible model would be for the the tokens themselves to have power of two values, and be split and combined as required.
The lost data problem
There is however a catch: What happens when blocks get lost? Parent blocks only contain their childrens' headers, not the block contents. At some point the difficulty of producing a block will drop sufficiently for malicious or accidental data loss to be possible. With the "parent chain wins" rule it must be possible to recover from that event for mining on the child to continue.
Concretely, suppose you have tx1 in block c2, which can be spent on chain b. The contents of chain a is known to you, but the full contents of chain b are unavailable:
b0 ⇽ b1 (b) (b) ↙ ↙ ↙ a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ⇽ a4 ⇽ a5 ↖ ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2 ⇽ c3 ⇽ c4 ⇽ c5
Blocks a3 and a4 are known to have children on b, but the contents of those children are unavailable. We can define some ratio of unknown to known blocks that must be proven for the proof to be valid. Here we show a 1:1 ratio:
⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽⇽ b0 ⇽ b1 (b) (b) b2 ⇽ b3 ⇽ b4 ⇽ b5 ⇽ b6 ⇽ b7 ↙ ↙ ↙ ↙ ↙ ↙ a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ a2 ⇽ a3 ⇽ a4 ⇽ a5 ⇽ a6 ⇽ a7 ⇽ a8 ⇽ a9 ↖ ↖ ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2 ⇽ c3 ⇽ c4 ⇽ c5 ⇽ c6 ⇽ c7 ⇽ c8 ⇽ c9
The proof of now shows that while a3 and a4 has b-side blocks, by the time you reach b6 those two lost blocks were in the minority. Of course a real system needs to be careful that mining blocks and then discarding them isn't a profitably way to create coins out of thin air - ratios well in excess of 1:1 are likely to be required.
Another idea is to say if the parent blockchain's contents are known we can insert a challenge into it specifying that a particular child block be published verbatim in the parent. Once the challenge is published further parent blocks may not reference that children on that side until either the desired block is re-republished or some timeout is reached. If the timeout is reached, mining backtracks to some previously known child specified in the challenge. In the typical case the block is known to a majority of miners, and is published, essentially allowing new miners to force the existing ones to "cough up" blocks they aren't publishing and allow the new ones to continue mining. (obviously some care needs to be taken with regard to incentives here)
While an attractive idea, this is our first foray into moon math. Suppose such a challenge was issued in block a2, asking for the contents of b1 to be published. Meanwhile tx1 is created in block c3, and can only be spent on a b-side chain:
b0 ⇽ b1 ↙ a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ (a2) ⇽ a3 ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2 ⇽ c3
The miners of the b-chain can violate the protocol by mining a4/b1', where b1' appears to contain valid transaction tx2:
b0 ⇽ b1 b1' ↙ ↙ a0 ⇽ a1 ⇽ (a2) ⇽ a3 ⇽ a4 ↖ c0 ⇽ c1 ⇽ c2 ⇽ c3
A proof of tx2 as valid payment would entirely miss fact that the challenge was published and thus not know that b1' was invalid. While I'm sure the reader can come up with all kinds of complex and fragile way of proving fraud to cause chain a to be somehow re-organized, what we really want is some sub-linear proof of honest computation. Without getting into details, this is probably possible via some flavor of sub-linear moon-math proof-of-execution. But this paper is too long already to start getting snarky.
Beyond token transfer systems
We can extend our simple one txin, one txout token transfer transactions with merkle (sum) trees. Here's a rough sketch of the concept:
input #1─┐ ┌─output #1 ├┐ ┌┤ input #2─┘│ │└─output #2 ├─┤ input #3─┐│ │┌─output #3 ├┘ └┤ input #4─┘ └─output #4
Where previously a transaction committed to a specific transaction output, we can make our transactions commit to a merkle-sum-tree of transaction outputs. To then redeem a transaction output you prove that enough prior outputs were spend to add up to the new output's value. The entire process can happen incrementally without any specific co-operation between miners on different parts of the chain, and inputs and outputs can come from any depth in the tree provided that care is taken to ensure that reorganization is not profitable.
Like the token transfer system proving a given output is valid has cost linear with history. However we can improve on that using non-interactive proof techniques. For instance in the linear token transfer example the history only needs to be proven to a point where the transaction fees are higher than the value of the output. (easiest where the work required to spend a txout of a given value is well defined) A similar approach can be easily taken with the directed-acyclic-graph of mutliple-input-output transactions. Secondly non-interactive proof techniques can also be used, again out of the scope of this already long preliminary paper.
1) "Disentangling Crypto-Coin Mining: Timestamping, Proof-of-Publication, and Validation", http://www.mail-archive.com/bitcoin-development%40lists.sourceforge.net/msg03307.html
Would you just laugh and move on to the next link? Or, would you have the courage to consider an evolutionary form of reorganizing... would you, after reading them, be willing to vote for these amendments if I prove they fix everything you don’t like about government?
If you’re still reading this…thank you for being brave(or curious)enough to consider that such a solution is possible. I respectfully challenge each of you to read and discuss the merits of these foundational changes to the Constitution and amendments. For, the only proper way to find the right solution for this country is to grow it, from the minds and hearts of we the People. The Constitution was and is, after all, created in this very way! I have affectionately named this solution… The Rediscovery Doctrine and it begins with a new Amendment eleven. AMENDMENT 11: RESET ARTICLE 1:ADDITION TO THE PREAMBLE
Because, that which created all of existence, intended for all which it created to exist, and to exist as the creator intended, the foundation of any law which may be recognized by the people, shall so respect the intent of the creator. That to live in peace and balance with all that has been created, is fundamental in securing a free and prosperous future for our kind. We must recognize the obvious existence of two forces, good and evil, which, like Mother Nature, have great influence over and above our control. Thus, we must also recognize in law, the balance of these forces such that all shall be free from the control of any force other than one’s own will. It then follows that the only way for all people to be free, is for all people to understand freedom, and then agree that all are equally entitled to such. ARTICLE 2:EQUALITY FOR ALL
*SECTION 1:That all beings of the Homo sapiens species shall be considered in law to have always been, and forever be, included in the original People class of this Constitution. And, that any laws contrary to such are unconstitutional actions executed under color of law.
*SECTION 2:That any and all laws throughout the history of the world which rely upon any discrimination – including, but not limited to religion, race, gender, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, etc. – shall be considered in law to have always been, and forever be, recognized by the People of the united states of America as unlawful actions executed under color of law.
*SECTION 3:As is the obvious intent of the founders of this union, the right to work is an element of the pursuit of happiness; therefore, the fruits of one’s labor are untaxable. The people may be subcontracted to perform elements of commerce, but so long as no element of the individual’s work is being additionally subcontracted, such individual’s actions fall within their right to work. ARTICLE 3:JUSTICE FOR ALL
*SECTION 1:That the Iroquois Great Law of Peace shall forever have held legal standing and precedence in its nature and intent relative to its obvious influence on the creation of this Constitution.
*SECTION 2:That all amendments after the Bill of Rights, and previous to the passing of this Amendment, shall be considered in law to have always been, and forever be, null and void; as, they are counter-intuitive to the natural law upon which this Constitution was founded.
*SECTION 3:That all People have the right to live among a society, without any obligation to act in any capacity of personage; and, that the status of being a “person” within the meaning of any law, must be proven with full findings of the facts and conclusions of law, prior enforcement. AMENDMENT 11 INTENT:
The first change I have suggested is to the preamble, because we must repair the government, not destroy it. In pursuit of that, the most important repair needed in my mind, is the resurrection of natural law as the foundation of our government. There is much debate in America these days, as to whether this is a nation whose laws are based on Christianity… it is not! It was intended to be based off of natural law, and given that Christianity also has tenants of natural law, a psychological usurpation has occurred. The framers chose to use three terms to define the natural force from which our rights are derived. They are “Laws of Nature”, “Nature’s God”, and “Creator”. These words were intentionally capitalized, meaning they are definable titles. None of which, include any reference to a specific religion in their historical application. By reestablishing the clear intent that this nation is based on natural law, we can protect all rights equally, and acknowledge the duty of our race to live in balance with the earth… and, with each other.
Article two starts by addressing class. The result of including all of our kind within the People class, is that it creates equality for all and negates the necessity for most ‘civil rights’ laws; thereby, cleaning up the legal system substantially. It further causes courts to equally protect creator endowed rights for all, while regulating corporate persons using statutory law. By nullifying any precedence in law which is based on any form of discrimination, as defined in the amendment, we can eliminate inequality in law. We then further refuse to recognize any such past law as having precedence today, thus negating things such as the Discovery Doctrine and Papal Bulls. I included this because in order to finally make right, what was wrong, we cannot continue to recognize any such laws as ever having been valid in this country... just as we can never recognize that the world has ever been flat, though it was once declared to be so by law.
The effect of this necessitates a new and open treaty between the People of the united states of America, and the sovereign First Nations of this land. As it stands, the only rights America ever had for the lease, sale, or regulation of this land, resulted from the now defunct Discovery Doctrine. Additionally, given that few, if any, Americans actually hold the patent to land they purchased, they must accept the reality that private land ownership is an illusion. As such, returning the patents to the First Nations to hold in trust–in perpetuity for the benefit of the People–will have no effective change as to one’s status of land ownership. This is not to say that the First Nations would have a plenary ability to make all land use decisions; however, laws of the united states of America must recognize the de jure rights of ultimate authority in this respect.
Next, I clarify the nature of the right to work. Though it is already strongly established in case law as a natural right under the pursuit of happiness clause in the Declaration of Independence, it is currently a very convoluted issue. Adding it to the Constitution will clearly define the ability to participate in commerce without loss of natural rights. It should be inferred that any mechanism which should be necessary to prosperity and pursuit of happiness in our society, should also become a protected right of the People.
Article three begins by clarifying Constitutional legal precedence. Though the sources that give legal precedence to our founding documents can find their roots in countries across the globe, what could be arguably considered the most important contributor is the Iroquois Great Law of Peace. Evidence of which can be found in the supporting documentation of Congressional Resolution 331 of 1988, including a side by side comparison showing the structural replication of the Great Law, within the Constitution. Just as the Magna Carta has legal precedence in law today, in respect to the intent of the Framers when including rights derived thereof, so too shall our courts look to the contributions of the Great Law of Peace when interpreting the intent of our Framers. (Congress, 1988)
Here is a basic overview of why amendments eleven through twenty-seven are not only irrelevant, but dangerous; thus, they must be considered to have never held precedence in law. By striking the eleventh we forever preserve the position of the People at the top of the hierarchy of sovereignty. By striking the twelfth, seventeenth, twentieth, twenty-fourth, and twenty-sixth amendments, we protect the People from obscurities being used to subvert the power of the People’s vote. Also, we have restructured the voting process to be within the absolute control of the People, eliminating any relevance of these amendments. By striking the thirteenth, fifteenth, and nineteenth, we remove laws which have become unnecessary as a result of including all of our kind in the People class. By striking the fourteenth, we remove the ultimate mechanism upon which, a complete usurpation of the People’s rights was constructed. This amendment is unnecessary for the protection of the People’s rights, as its original intent was to create a new subject class for freed slaves, so as to maintain the legal superiority of the white man. By striking the sixteenth, eighteenth, and twenty-first, we remove laws that have become unnecessary, as they apply to and are dependent upon the existence of the fourteenth amendment. By striking the twenty-third amendment, we eliminate a law which is no longer necessary, because People who live within the boundaries of the District of Columbia, as detailed in the Residence Act of 1790, maintain voting rights within their respective states.
Additionally, by eliminating all earlier amendments, which follow the tenth, we also eliminate the IRS. This will repeal the current taxing system, as it is the same one that allowed for the fruits of our labor to be taxed under color of law. In its original form, the tax structure is such that corporate profits are solely liable for the tax burden; and, the Peoples participation as consumers in the economy effectively causes them to ‘pay taxes’. This further results in a far more efficient taxing system, and protects the People’s rights from being taxed in the future. By eliminating the previous eleventh Amendment, we stop it from ever again being misconstrued in law. This singular misconstruction was one of the key foundations upon which the power of the People was subverted and usurped. A law review by Randy E. Barnett – titled The people or the state? Chisholm V. Georgia and Popular Sovereignty (Barnett, 2007)–explains the original hierarchy of sovereignty, and the ill-fated effect of the misinterpretation of the previous eleventh amendment. (SupremeCourt, CHISHOLM v. STATE OF GA, 1793., 2 U.S. 419) The original intent of the previous eleventh amendment allowed the states to claim sovereign immunity against claims brought by citizens of another state. However, we must ask ourselves… should a group of sovereign People, simply because they are greater in number, be able to avoid the consequences of breaching a contract or violating a right of one of the People? This amendment was later construed by the supreme court in such a way that it became the foundation, which allowed for the fourteenth amendment to usurp the rights of all People. By converting people into ‘persons’ they became recognized in law as legally created entities, entitled only to the privileges granted by the sovereign authority. The U.S. Citizen is a class of its own, separate from the People class. The Privileges and Immunities granted to U.S. Citizens specifically do not include the rights protected under the first ten amendments. (SupremeCourt, Twining v. New Jersey, 211 US 78, 98-99, 1908). In law, the court cannot recognize you if you are not a “Person”. In criminal matters, when you sign the paper saying you understand your constitutional rights, you are saying that you are a U.S. Citizen and tacitly agree that the Bill of Rights are not protections which you can claim in this venue.
Finally, I address the issue of personage. The blanket application of this term, to all People, was orchestrated through the creation of the fourteenth amendment U.S. Citizen… which is by definition a “person”. The U.S. Citizen never existed prior to the creation of this Amendment. Also in law, man and person are not exactly synonymous terms. Person is employed in jurisprudence in opposition to the word man (homo), and considers only the state of the man, or the part he plays in society, without considering the individual. (Browne, 1873) In the context of the current law, we are considered a person as a U.S. Citizen, and the privileges granted by the 14th Amendment specifically exclude the rights protected under the Bill of Rights. So, when we exercise our right to go get food from a store, and walk along a sidewalk, we are considered in law to be a ‘natural person’. This refers to Homo sapiens acting in the capacity of a ‘person’, which is always defined in law as a ‘Corporation’ or other ‘legal entity’.
For example, if the police decide to use the wording of a law as an excuse to harass you and subvert what should be your protected rights, they do so because they do not legally recognize those rights, as you are a person and not a People. This singular legal trick, which made minorities and women believe they had protected rights, ultimately became the mechanism by which everyone’s rights were exchanged for the privileges of personage. By bringing all of our kind within the People class, and clearly defining their right not to be considered a person in law, except by contract, all rights will be restored to the People of this land by default. In addition, with the repeal of the eleventh Amendment, which restores Chisholm v. Georgia’s legal precedence of the hierarchy of sovereignty, we will instantly regain ultimate control as a People, over all government and corporations. AMENDMENT 12: RESTRUCTURE ARTICLE 1:ELECTION CORRECTION
*SECTION 1:For the purpose of ensuring true representation of the People, within the united states of America, this constitution shall secure the following truths in law in regard to the People’s right to vote: *I.That the right of the People to vote is a natural right, and therefore it may not be regulated or taxed. *II.That the minimum age upon which one is recognized by law to be competent to engage in contracts, shall be the minimum age upon which one shall be recognized as having the right to vote. *III.All elements of the election process shall be fully controlled by popular vote of the People. *IV.All positions in government, by which appointment is determined by election, shall be decided solely by popular vote of the people. *V.All votes of the People shall be hand counted.
*SECTION 2:Each elected position of the united states of America, and within each individual State, shall consist of three equal elected officials, as follows: *I.Two People of different gender, as representatives for the united states of America; and, *II.One People as a representative of the several independent and sovereign indigenous nations of this land.
*SECTION 3:All elected officials shall execute only the will of the People, within the bounds of the constitution, without consideration of any other interest, including but not limited to, parties, factions, corporations, foreign nations, etc.
*SECTION 4:The People have the right to petition to hold a special vote at any time, in order to remove any agent of their government; vacate any action of government; or compel any government agent to perform an action. Such a vote shall require a sixty percent majority of the voting populace to pass, and may not be overturned, except by another vote of a sixty percent majority of the voting populace.
*SECTION 5:Any law, which creates term limits, is void.
*SECTION 6:All judicial positions of all jurisdictions within the united states of America, shall be determined by popular vote of the People.
*SECTION 7:Only tax revenue may be used for promoting elections. Any resource donated or otherwise designated for the purposes of promoting elections, candidates, or the likes thereof, shall be distributed equally within the specific class to which such resources have been designated. Any other form of influence in the election process, resulting from an exchange which may be regulated by law, shall be considered to be treason against the People of the united states. ARTICLE 2:PROSPERITY AND WELFARE
The following truths shall be recognized as essential elements of the prosperity and welfare of this nation:
*SECTION 1:That we the People, are dependent upon maintaining balance within the ecosystem provided by the creator, for the purposes of sustaining all life.
*SECTION 2:That the good health of this nation is essential to maintain security, prosperity, and provide for the general welfare of the People. It is therefore evident that universal healthcare must be provided to all People, without prejudice.
*SECTION 3:That all knowledge comes from the creator, and therefore can only be discovered by the People; therefore,
*I.The right to use of any knowledge by the people or any person shall not be restricted, except as is necessary to secure the rights of the People.
*II.For the protection of discoveries used for commercial purposes, any rights to such discoveries protected under law, shall be guaranteed a royalty for such use, as prescribed by law.
*III.Because discoveries strengthen the economy and defense of this nation, access to formal education and all public knowledge shall be made available to the People. As such, and because truth is essential to preventing the corruption and usurpation of individual sovereign rights, a full accounting of the facts in history shall be forever made available to the People.
*SECTION 4:Whereas, history has shown that poverty serves only to weaken a nation, and to guarantee a stable economy for all future generations, the following truths shall be recognized as essential elements of maintaining the prosperity of this nation:
*I.There shall be established an open source digital treasury.
*II.All assets and intellectual property of the united states of America shall be considered to be “money”, which shall be reflected within the open source digital treasury.
*III.All People shall be entitled to a “Tax Royalty”, which shall be unalienable, and derived from a percentage of all taxes collected, as defined by the People of each taxing authority in or within the united states of America. * a.Only People whom shall have voted in at least sixty percent of elections, from which taxing authority their royalty is derived, shall have the right to claim Tax Royalties. * b.Until such a time as the aforementioned Tax Royalty model is implemented, each taxing authority shall provide an equal percentage of their revenue, in order to provide a combined total dividend equivalent to one ounce of gold, to which all voting age People shall be entitled.
*IV.Basic housing shall be made available for the entire population.
*V.The right of the People, to live off the land, cultivate agriculture, or raise livestock, shall not be restricted or interfered with by government policy, except as dictated by land use rights.
*SECTION 5:No People or person may profit from performing any function of government.
*SECTION 6:No corporation, partnership, or other legal entity may perform the functions of government. AMENDMENT 12 INTENT:
I begin with a comprehensive election correction. It has come to be that the vote of the People has been usurped through color of law, and by financial interests not of the People. This has occurred, because the right to vote is not secured and protected for any group of citizens in this country.>“In Minor v Happersett, 21 Wall. 178,22 L. ed. 627, We decided that the Constitution of the US has not conferred the right to suffrage upon anyone, and that the united states have no voters of their own creation in the states… From this it appears that the right of suffrage is not a necessary attribute of national citizenship, but that exemption from discrimination in the exercise of that right on account of race, etc., is. The right to vote in the states comes from the states, but the right of exemption from the prohibited discrimination comes from the United States. The first has not been granted or secured by the Constitution of the United States, but the last has been. The fifteenth amendment is therefore a limitation upon the powers of the states in the execution of their otherwise unlimited right to prescribe the qualification of voters in their own elections…”< (Company, 1915) It’s illogical to deduce that the state, which could not exist without the People having voted it into existence, could have the authority to dictate the nature of that which created it. Therefore, it becomes necessary to establish the sovereign right to vote, as a creator endowed right.
Equating the voting age, with the age at which contracts become binding, we ensure equal representation is never denied to anyone based upon age. If one can be held amenable to a contract, one has the right to vote in the system which regulates that contract. Furthermore, the power of our vote is restored by eliminating any ‘middle man’ in the entire voting process. That is to say, popular vote will decide all elements of who runs for office, where voting occurs, who is appointed, etc. Combined with a hand counting process, we ensure that who we want to perform certain functions of government, remains fully within the purview of the People.
Regardless of race or religion, one commonality of discrimination occurs among most colonized nations, and that is regarding women as having fewer rights based on gender. The importance of balance between men and women in power was the cornerstone to success for the Great Law of Peace. Given that the population is approximately half men and half women, ensuring that each elected position has one of each, is the best way to maintain equality in government. By further allowing for Native representation within the government, we ensure their ability to take part in decisions which effect their rights and security, while maintaining U.S. jurisdiction over military, police, commerce, etc.
Allowing for the People to petition for a special vote to remove any government agent or vacate any government action, guarantees that if and when corruption flares up… we can put it out immediately. In conjunction with having three People for each elected position, removing laws which create term limits will allow for the People best suited for the job, to continue making America a better place. By causing all judges to be appointed by election of the People, we protect the People and persons from court decisions being persuaded by the interests of a small group.
To protect us from ever again allowing interests, other than that of the People, from influencing governmental policy, we must ensure equality within the elections process. The only way to do that is to recognize that such erosion of this core principle will ultimately result in Treason against the People. Thus, we must ensure that only the taxing agency, of any given election, may be authorized to provide the resources for this process. This guarantees that equal distribution of resources will be provided throughout all elections, and to all willing candidates.
Article two begins by addressing prosperity and welfare. Recognizing the essential elements of both, are necessary to our society, just as was the Bill of Rights when they were written. This is not because they are not already obvious, but rather to clarify for the government, its resulting obligations. Never before has it been more obvious that we as a People, need to come together to once again create balance within our ecosystem. There is no question that we as a species are dependent upon such balance. And further, to make such a claim that it is our right to do whatever we want on this planet, so long as we maintain the necessary power to do so, is absurd on its face. It is equivalent to saying that we have the right to exterminate life which we are dependent upon, and which the creator intended to exist. Clearly, we have neither the moral right, nor the land use rights to live in such a selfish, short sighted manner.
It is evident that a universal health care system can operate efficiently. And, without such a system, we cannot maintain the good health of this nation, which is essential to our security and innovation. Physical and mental well-being obviously increases one’s capacity to gain knowledge, and the opposite, when extrapolated, would result in a less educated populous. An efficient, free healthcare system is an investment in the economic stability of this nation.
No one can claim to have created any knowledge, unless they claim to have created all of existence. Knowledge is instead a result of exploration of nature, and therefore no one may claim exclusive ownership thereof. This truth creates a conflict with current patent laws, which have caused innovation to become stifled by financial interests. This occurs through a patent system, which keeps the People from being able to implement important discoveries, such as lifesaving technologies. Furthermore, by allowing for financial incentive under the current system, powerful corporations can use their resources to lock up knowledge and sue others for discovering and implementing the same knowledge. Further, we create a pool of knowledge from upon which everybody can draw, and the original inventors are provided a guarantee to the fruits of their labor.
It is apparent that when People lack knowledge, their security and ability to create, succumb to the jeopardy of evil interests whom possess more knowledge. Therefore, we must once again become the beacon of knowledge among the world. Let it be known to all, the full truth of history. For, if we hide the truth and rewrite history, then we cannot protect ourselves from the elaborate schemes of evil. We must not only fully examine truth and knowledge but also make it equally accessible to all of our People. Access to knowledge shall be provided to the people without regard to socio economic status, as this is an investment in the future productivity of this nation.
Still, there is one more mechanism that must be put into place to ensure poverty is forever eradicated. And, so that no financial interest of any size shall ever have the power to gridlock our economy and recreate poverty, we must implement the People’s Tax Royalty. This mechanism equates to profit sharing for the People, and it creates great incentive for everyone to participate in our economy and voting process. By guaranteeing everybody who votes at least sixty percent of the time, a percentage of the profits taxed, they become motivated to actively run their own government efficiently. The more tax surplus created by an efficient government, the more wealth the People individually gain. If they overregulate the corporations, they also serve to stifle their own economy. It follows then, that the more money the People get from their efficient regulation, the more money goes back into the economy.
With the economy in full control of the People, we must then protect ourselves from international bankers attempting to create any future, fiat money systems. By moving to a Bitcoin like digital currency backed by all the combined assets of this country, we will have a transparent banking system backed and operated by and for the People. No other interest may then ever again usurp our economy or rights, through such entities as a Federal Reserve or World Bank. All loans are by the People, and all interests are paid to the People. Banks are intended to secure money, thereby allowing for the free exchange thereof, so there is no need for a middle man to loan us our own money.
If private investors want to loan money to an individual or business, then that is the prerogative of those parties. This is a fundamental function of a healthy economy that allows for businesses and People to prosper. However, if the same investors wish to loan the government money, then we must examine why we would again allow ourselves to become dependent upon interests, which serve to gain at the expense of the People. In a loan of necessity, the gain of one… is the loss of another. Should a financial entity have such a surplus of wealth, as to be able to offer a loan to the People, why then would we not raise the funds by increasing taxes on those same entities. For, the privilege to gain powerful wealth in our economy, is not only granted by the People, but also necessitates the financial obligation of such entities, towards all infrastructure needed to facilitate that privilege. In addition, if such a loan is offered by a foreign interest, then we must closely examine the true intent of that ‘offer’. When an entity has that much power, and the will of the People necessitates the need for resources, then the People can simply increase tariffs on imports from the nations where such interests are based. Through these mechanisms, any revenue which would have been obtained at a loss through a loan, shall now be attained through the mutually beneficial, symbiotic relationship between People and corporate entities. This will create a self-sustaining, stable economy that benefits all humanity.
There is no question that we have the capacity as a nation to eliminate hunger and homelessness. Furthermore, eliminating homelessness reduces public health concerns, and allows for those less fortunate to prosper and participate productively in society. It has been proven many times over, that housing the homeless costs the tax payers less than leaving them homeless. There already exists enough housing inventory to provide shelter to all of the People. We the People have a right to use homes for shelter, over the right of private interests to leave such homes vacant for purposes of making profit. By default of this combination of amendments, laws created to restrict agricultural growth, for the purposes of maintaining higher food and resource prices, are nullified. It also allows for such resources to remain accessible to the People. These types of land use decisions will generally remain exclusive to the First Nations, upon whom it will be incumbent to regulate our ecosystem back to good health. By establishing this mechanism, we will find that food and housing can be very affordable for all.
It has become clear that the ability to profit from the functions of government, will always allow for corruption and greed. Therefore, it becomes necessary to eliminate the potential for this abuse altogether. This is accomplished by restricting the ability of corporations, partnerships, and other legal entities from performing the functions of government. Wherein, we eliminate the potential loopholes that allow a person to profit from the functions of government, without directly performing them. Some examples of this are prisons for profit, privatized education, privatized military agencies, privatized public defense and prosecution, etc. AMENDMENT 13: RECONCILIATION ARTICLE 1:TRUTH
*SECTION 1:For the purposes of protecting all of the People on this land, investigation and prosecution of corruption within government, shall be of the highest priority for the executive branch.
*SECTION 2:All penalties under law, which have been imposed on People for such actions which would otherwise be lawful under the common law, shall be immediately vacated and expunged. All People who have been penalized by law, for actions which would otherwise be unlawful under the common law, shall be immediately entitled to review and appeal of such penalties. In such an instance, all jurisdiction and penalties of law shall remain in effect for these individuals, until such a time that their case shall have been fully reviewed under the correct structure of law. ARTICLE 2:ACCOUNTABILITY & FORGIVENESS
*SECTION 1:Whereas ones actions may have been executed under color of law, and in violation of rights or in breach of a contractual obligation, full immunity shall be granted for any People or person who shall enter into the P.R.O.M.P.T. Compact.
*I.PROTECTION * a.All parties to this compact, are exempt from prosecution for any violation of rights or breach of contract committed under color of law. * b.Personal protection from retribution for participating in this compact, shall be provided as prescribed by law to be necessary.
*II.RESTITUTION * a.Determination of community service, asset forfeiture, or any other form of restitution, shall be within the plenary control of the presiding court.
*III.OBLIGATIONS * a.All parties shall cooperate with full transparency and honesty during any investigation of unlawful actions. * b.All parties shall remain compliant with the provisions of the P.R.O.M.P.T. compact, until such time as they are relieved of such obligation, as prescribed by law.
*IV.MONITORING * a.As to the extent and period of time which any party to this compact shall be monitored, shall be within the plenary control of the presiding court.
*V.PROVISIONS * a.Any violation of the provisions of this compact, shall result in the loss of immunity from prosecution and the removal of all protections granted.
*VI.TREATMENT * a.All parties found to have committed violations of rights or breach of contracts under color of law, shall be subject to mental health evaluation; and, the presiding court shall have plenary control in deciding conditions of treatment necessary to ensure the protection of others from such actions in the future. ARTICLE 13 INTENT:
For the purposes of maintaining honesty and integrity within all levels of government, and to ensure the interests and rights of the People are never threatened or usurped… no other priority shall rise above investigation and prosecution of corruption within government.
Given that these collective amendments have reestablished the common law, all non-commercial ‘crimes’ are nullified by the fact, that such crimes were prosecuted under statutory law. Statutory law is established for the purposes of regulating commerce and government. The common law is the establishment of the collective consensus of the law of the land throughout history, for the exclusive purpose of securing our rights against trespass. In an instance where an individual was in possession of ‘illegal drugs’ for personal use, they would have committed no crime under the common law. By retroactively negating recognition of unjust laws, we nullify any prosecutorial action taken against such an individual.
Some would argue that the State has the right to outlaw drugs because of the overall negative effect on the welfare of the nation. However, that notion comes from the current structure of our government. Under common law, an individual’s right to use a drug can only be regulated if that particular individual’s drug use, contributed to their criminal behavior. From the perspective of common law, you cannot extrapolate the actions of a few to justify the restriction of the rights of the many. Because drug use is common among all cultures, it has foundation to be considered an individual right within common law. In comparison, this concept cannot be extrapolated to establish that the government has no right to regulate one’s ability to develop weapons of mass destruction, just because they have not committed a crime. In this regard we the People clearly have the right to regulate the extent to which we may bear arms, insofar as it becomes a threat to our own security. It is essentially a balance that works well when the People’s vote, ultimately determines such thresholds. Far too often, determination of such decisions is left to a small group of ‘representatives’, who simply by their sheer number, cannot possess the capacity to make such a profound and fundamental decision for the People as a whole.
Next, we explore the P.R.O.M.P.T. compact’s intent. It is vital to understand the importance of immunity under the P.R.O.M.P.T. Compact, and rise above anger and the desire for revenge against those who committed crimes under color of law. Some examples of such crimes would be torture, illegal war, corporate involvement in our financial crisis, police violence, etc. This can be a hard pill to swallow, but is absolutely necessary in order for all other elements of these amendments to come to fruition. This is because, with the cooperation of those who committed these acts, we will finally know all the inner workings of the most erosive system of corruption in the history of this nation. This will allow us to protect ourselves from such corruption in the future. We will have all rights to seize assets, and monitor these People as prescribed by law, but we must offer protection in order to gain cooperation.
It is also important to understand that evil is the source of corruption and it is above the capacity mankind to remove this force from nature. From there, we must understand that such a man as George W. Bush, for example, has probably never possessed the capacity or environment to participate in any other behavior but evil. These types of People have no choice but to be collusive in evil behavior, and under our current structure, prosecution of one would open the door to the same for all alike. However, this would literally result in a complete governmental and financial collapse, due to the vast amount of corruption which currently exists. In truth, these types of People are actually the most oppressed of us all, hence the severely deviant behavior. We therefore, must consider their circumstances and offer treatment and reprieve. Such deep seeded corruption within an individual is a result of addiction to power. We must treat this addiction! Just like one cannot quit cold turkey, as a heavily addicted alcohol or heroin user, the same goes for addiction to power. We must nurture these People back to good mental health, and provide them with the opportunity to gain forgiveness for their trespasses.
- Please note, this work is covered under copyright, it is a modified excerpt from Chapter 17: Rediscovery Doctrine; from my novel Thunderbird & the Search for Sovereignty, by Bree A. Hood. If you made it through all of that... I invite you to discuss and debate. And, I thank you for your time.~B.A.H.
Barnett, R. E. (2007).The People of the State?:Chisholm v.Georgia and Popular Sovereignty.([email protected]
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Browne, W. H. (1873).Law of Trade-Marks.In W. H. Browne,A Treatise on the Law of Trade-marks and Analogous Subjects (pp. 194-195).
Company, L. C.-o.(1915).Karemv.United States;Circut Court of Appeals.In B. A. Rich (Ed.),The Lawyers Reports Annotated,Volumes 61-62, pp.440-441.Rochester,NY: Lawyers' Co-operative Publishing Company.
Congress,U.(1988).100th Congress 2nd Session.Retrieved Feb 10,2015,from www.senate.gov: https://www.senate.gov/reference/resources/pdf/hconres331.pdf
SupremeCourt. (1793., 2 U.S. 419).CHISHOLM v.STATE OF GA.Retrieved Feb 15,2015, from Findlaw for legal professionals: http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=2&invol=419
Twining v.New Jersey,211 US 78,98-99,211 U.S.78(US Supreme Court Nov 9,1908).
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