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The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

The Intellectual Foundation of Bitcoin比特幣的智識基礎. By Chapman Chen, HKBNews

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Summary: Bitcoin was invented by the anonymous Satoshi Nakamoto as recently as 2008, but it is backed up by a rich intellectual foundation. For instance, The 1776 First Amendment separates church and state, and contemporary American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) argues that money and state should similarly be separated. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the anonymous creator Satoshi Nakamoto's desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. Indeed, Bloomberg's 2020 report confirms Bitcoin to be gold 2.0. Montesquieu (1774) asserted that laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature, and the natural laws employed in Bitcoin include its consensus algorithm and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand). J.S. Mill (1859) preferred free markets to those controlled by governments. Ludwig von Mises (1951) argued against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. Friedrich Hayek (1984) suggested people to invent a sly way to take money back from the hands of the government. Milton Friedman (1994) called for FED to be replaced by an automatic system and predicted the coming of a reliable e-cash. James Buchanan (1988) advocated a monetary constitution to constrain the governmental power of money creation. Tim May (1997) the cypherpunk proclaimed that restricting digital cash impinges on free speech, and envisioned a stateless digital form of money that is uncensorable. The Tofflers (2006) pictured a non-monetary economy. In 2016, UCLA Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry even nominated Satoshi for a Nobel Prize.
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Separation between money and state
The 1791 First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution enshrines free speech and separates church and state, but not money and state. "Under the First Amendment, individuals’ right to create, choose their own money and transact freely was not recognized as a part of freedom of expression that needs to be protected," Japanese-American liberation psychologist Nozomi Hayase (2020) points out (1).
The government, banks and corporations collude together to encroach upon people's liberties by metamorphosing their inalienable rights into a permissioned from of legal rights. Fiat currencies function as a medium of manipulation, indulging big business to generate market monopolies. "Freedom of expression has become further stifled through economic censorship and financial blockage enacted by payment processing companies like Visa and MasterCard," to borrow Hayase's (2020) words.
Satoshi is a Modern Newton
Although most famous for discovering the law of gravity, Isaac Newton was also a practising alchemist. He never managed to turn lead into gold, but he did find a way to transmute silver into gold. In 1717, Newton announced in a report that, based on his studies, one gold guinea coin weighed 21 shillings. Just as Isaac Newton’s study of alchemy gave rise to the international gold standard, so has the desire for a “modernized gold standard” given rise to Bitcoin. "In a way, Satoshi is a modern Newton. They both believed trust is best placed in the unchangeable facets of our economy. Beneath this belief is the assumption that each individual is their own best master," as put by Jon Creasy (2019) (2).
J.S. Mill: free markets preferable to those controlled by governments
John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) the great English philosopher would be a Bitcoiner were he still around today. In On Liberty (1859), Mill concludes that free markets are preferable to those controlled by governments. He argues that economies function best when left to their own devices. Therefore, government intervention, though theoretically permissible, would be counterproductive. Bitcoin is precisely decentralized or uncontrolled by the government, unconfiscatable, permissonless, and disinflationary. Bitcoin regulates itself spontaneously via the ordinary operations of the system. "Rules are enforced without applying any external pressure," in Hayase's (2020) words.
Ludwig von Mises (1958): Liberty is always Freedom from the Government
In The Free Market and its Enemies, theoretical Austrian School economist Ludwig von Mises (1951) argues against the hazards of fiat currency, urging for a return to the gold standard. “A fiat money system cannot go on forever and must one day come to an end,” Von Mises states. The solution is a return to the gold standard, "the only standard which makes the determination of the purchasing power of money independent of the changing ideas of political parties, governments, and pressure groups" under present conditions. Interestingly, this is also one of the key structural attributes of Bitcoin, the world’s first, global, peer-to-peer, decentralized value transfer network.
Actually, Bloomberg's 2020 report on Bitcoin confirms that it is gold 2.0. (3)
Von Mises prefers the price of gold to be determined according to the contemporaneous market conditions. The bitcoin price is, of course, determined across the various global online exchanges, in real-time. There is no central authority setting a spot price for gold after the which the market value is settled on among the traders during the day.
Hayek: Monopoly on Currency should End
Austrian-British Nobel laureate Friedrich Hayek’s theory in his 1976 work, Denationalization of Money, was that not only would the currency monopoly be taken away from the government, but that the monopoly on currency itself should end with multiple alternative currencies competing for acceptance by consumers, in order "to prevent the bouts of acute inflation and deflation which have played the world for the past 60 years." He forcefully argues that if there is no free competition between different currencies within any nation, then there will be no free market. Bitcoin is, again, decentralized, and many other cryptocurrencies have tried to compete with it, though in vain.
In a recently rediscovered video clip from 1984, Hayek actually suggested people to invent a cunning way to take money out of the hands of the government:- “I don’t believe we shall ever have a good money again before we take the thing out of the hands of government, that is, we can’t take them violently out of the hands of government, all we can do is by some sly roundabout way introduce something they can’t stop” (4). Reviewing those words 36 years hence and it is difficult not to interpret them in the light of Bitcoin.
Milton Friedman Called for FED to be Replaced by an Automatic System
Nobel laureate economist Milton Friedman (1994) was critical of the Federal Reserve due to its poor performance and felt it should be abolished (5). Friedman (1999) believed that the Federal Reserve System should ultimately be replaced with a computer program, which makes us think of the computer code governing Bitcoin (6).[\](https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Criticism_of_the_Federal_Reserve#cite_note-:2-12) He (1970) favored a system that would automatically buy and sell securities in response to changes in the money supply. This, he argued, would put a lid on inflation, setting spending and investment decisions on a surer footing (7). Bitcoin is exactly disflationary as its maximum possible supply is 21 million and its block reward or production rate is halved every four years.
Friedman passed away before the coming of bitcoin, but he lived long enough to see the Internet’s spectacular rise throughout the 1990s. “I think that the Internet is going to be one of the major forces for reducing the role of government," said Friedman in a 1999 interview with NTU/F. On the same occasion, he sort of predicted the emergence of Bitcoin, "The one thing that’s missing, but that will soon be developed, is a reliable e-cash, a method whereby on the Internet you can transfer funds from A to B, without A knowing B or B knowing A." (8)
Of course, Friedman didnt predict the block chain, summed up American libertarian economist Jeffery Tucker (2014). “But he was hoping for a trustless system. He saw the need. (9).
Bitcoin Computer Code as Constitution in the Buchananian Sense
American economist cum Nobel laureate James Buchanan (1988) advocates constitutional constraints on the governmental power to create money (10). Buchanan distinguishes a managed monetary system—a system “that embodies the instrumental use of price-level predictability as a norm of policy”—from an automatic monetary system, “which does not, at any stage, involve the absolute price level” (Buchanan 1962, 164–65). Leaning toward the latter, Buchanan argues that automatic systems are characterized by an organization “of the institutions of private decision-making in such a way that the desired monetary predictability will emerge spontaneously from the ordinary operations of the system” (Buchanan 1962, 164). Again, "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone" (Hayase 2020).
Shruti Rajagopalan (2018) argues that the computer code governing how the sundry nodes/computers within the Bitcoin network interact with one another is a kind of monetary constitution in the Buchananian sense. One of Buchanan's greatest inputs is to differentiate the choice of rules from the choice within rule (Buchanan 1990). One may regard the Bitcoin code as a sort of constitution and "the Bitcoin network engaging in both the choice of rules and choice within rules" (Rajagopalan 2018) (11).
Tim May: Restricting Digital Cash may Impinge on Free Speech
Cypherpunks are activists who since the 1980s have advocated global use of strong cryptography and privacy-enhancing technologies as a route to social and political liberation. Tim May (Timothy C. May [1951-2018]), one of the influential cypherpunks published The Crypto Anarchist Manifesto in September 1992, which foretold the coming of Bitcoin (12). Cypherpunks began envisioning a stateless digital form of money that cannot be censored and their collaborative pursuit created a movement akin to the 18th Enlightenment.
At The 7th Conference on Computers, Freedom, and Privacy, Burlingame, CA. in 1997, Tim May equated money with speech, and argued that restricting digital cash may impinge on free speech, for spending money is often a matter of communicating orders to others, to transfer funds, to release funds, etc. In fact, most financial instruments are contracts or orders, instead of physical specie or banknotes (13).
Montesquieu: Laws that secure inalienable rights can only be found in Nature
In his influential work The Spirit of Laws (1748), Montesquieu wrote, “Laws ... are derived from the nature of things … Law, like mathematics, has its objective structure, which no arbitrary whim can alter". Similarly, once a block is added to the end of the Bitcoin blockchain, it is almost impossible to go back and alter the contents of the block, unless every single block after it on the blockchain is altered, too.
Cypherpunks knew that whereas alienable rights that are bestowed by law can be deprived by legislation, inalienable rights are not to be created but can be discovered by reason. Thus, laws that secure inalienable rights cannot be created by humankind but can be found in nature.
The natural laws employed in Bitcoin to enshrine the inalienable monetary right of every human being include its consensus algorithm, and the three natural laws of economics (self-interest, competition, and supply and demand) as identified by Adam Smith, father of modern economics.
Regarding mathematics, bitcoin mining is performed by high-powered computers that solve complex computational math problems. When computers solve these complex math problems on the Bitcoin network, they produce new bitcoin. And by solving computational math problems, bitcoin miners make the Bitcoin payment network trustworthy and secure, by verifying its transaction information.
Regarding economic laws, in accordance with the principle of game theory to generate fairness, miners take part in an open competition. Lining up self-interests of all in a network, with a vigilant balance of risk and rewards, rules are put in force sans the application of any exterior pressure. "Bitcoin regulates itself through the spontaneous force of nature, flourishing healthy price discovery and competition in the best interest of everyone," to borrow the words of Hayase (2020).
A Non-monetary Economy as Visualized by the Tofflers
In their book, Revolutionary Wealth (2006), futurists Alvin Toffler and his wife Heidi Toffler toy with the concept of a world sans money, raising a third kind of economic transaction that is neither one-on-one barter nor monetary exchange. In the end, they settle on the idea that the newer non-monetary economy will exist shoulder-to-shoulder with the monetary sector in the short term, although the latter may eventually be eclipsed by the former in the long run. What both the Tofflers' The Third Wave (1980) and Revolutionary Wealth bring into question is the very premise of monetary exchange. The vacuum left over by cash in such a non-monetary economy may be filled up by Bitcoin as a cryptocurrency.
Satoshi Nakamoto Nominated for Nobel Prize by UCLA Finance Prof.
UCLA Anderson School Professor of Finance Bhagwan Chowdhry nominated Satoshi Nakamoto for the 2016 Nobel Prize in Economics on the following grounds:-
It is secure, relying on almost unbreakable cryptographic code, can be divided into millions of smaller sub-units, and can be transferred securely and nearly instantaneously from one person to any other person in the world with access to internet bypassing governments, central banks and financial intermediaries such as Visa, Mastercard, Paypal or commercial banks eliminating time delays and transactions costs.... Satoshi Nakamoto’s Bitcoin Protocol has spawned exciting innovations in the FinTech space by showing how many financial contracts — not just currencies — can be digitized, securely verified and stored, and transferred instantaneously from one party to another (14).
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Disclaimer: This article is neither an advertisement nor professional financial advice.
End-notes
  1. https://bitcoinmagazine.com/articles/bitcoin-is-the-technology-of-dissent-that-secures-individual-liberties
  2. https://medium.com/hackernoon/why-sir-isaac-newton-was-the-first-bitcoin-maximalist-195a17cb6c34
  3. https://data.bloomberglp.com/professional/sites/10/Bloomberg-Crypto-Outlook-April-2020.pdf
  4. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EYhEDxFwFRU&t=1161s
  5. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6fkdagNrjI
  6. http://youtu.be/mlwxdyLnMXM
  7. https://miltonfriedman.hoover.org/friedman_images/Collections/2016c21/IEA_1970.pdf
  8. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6MnQJFEVY7s
  9. https://www.coindesk.com/economist-milton-friedman-predicted-bitcoin
  10. https://www.aier.org/research/prospects-for-a-monetary-constitution/
  11. https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3238472
  12. https://www.activism.net/cypherpunk/crypto-anarchy.html
  13. http://osaka.law.miami.edu/~froomkin/articles/tcmay.htm
  14. https://www.huffpost.com/entry/i-shall-happily-accept-th_b_8462028
Pic credit: Framingbitcoin
#bitcoin #bitcoinhalving #jamesBuchanan #MiltonFriedman #AlvinToffler #FirstAmendment #LudwigVonMises #TimMay #freeMarket # SatoshiNakamoto #FriedrichHayek #Cypherpunk #Cryptocurrency #GoldStandard #IsaacNewton
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Die rand is kak

So the bitcoin network starts off 2016 much stronger than it entered 2015. With over a billion $ in startup investment capital. It is crazy to realize that it is worth R111,415,577,100 in valuation (amount of coins multiplied by freemarket price) and this is just the beginning. Compare this to standard bank at R188,4B especially if you consider they are down about 40% in the past year where bitcoin is up 533% since 2013, and up 61% in the last 6 months.
1 bitcoin = R7404
Crazy you might say.. no. Go look up what quantitative easing is. Hint: The banks have been creating trillions, devaluing your savings.
Bitcoin's processing power is now at 832,017,286,000,000,000 SHA256 hashes per second. This is what work it requires to mine bitcoin, what makes it secure and why we trust it more than some database in someone's vault that they can go edit if they please. This is real measurable energy consumption. Almost like digging up gold, just more humane.
With 6 months left till the amount of new bitcoins mined halves to 12.5BTC per 10mins. We'll be entering the realm of sub 5% yearly monetary base inflation. This means instead of R788,400,000 worth of bitcoin created per month it will become only R394,200,000 worth per month newly issued. This new cycle will run for 4 years, like the last, before it halves again, and again. Until eventually in 140 years from now we have the last bit of bitcoin at 21million BTC. 21,000,000.000,000,000 should be enough for everyone.
I've used rands so people can understand the scale of this thing a bit better. The exchange rates change over time according to free markets.
Edit: I've added a list of links.. far from complete, but good enough to get started. I recommend south africans to use bitx market to exchange BTC/ZAR. Watch the links under knowledge in this list.
Wallets:
breadwallet iPhone bitcoin Android
more on bitcoin.org/en/choose-your-wallet
Exchanges:
bitx ZAR, MYR, NGN, KES, IDR kraken EUR, USD, CAD, GBP, JPY, LTC okcoin CNY, USD vaultoro XAU (gold) There are many more..
Useful services for south african bitcoin holders:
bitrefill Buy 8ta, cellc, mtn or vodacom airtime using bitcoin. takealot.com Buy things online for delivery, use instant eft then bitcoin on checkout. namecheap Domains for bitcoin.
Tools:
bitxZAR bitx market for south africans. bitcoinwisdom for seeing live exchange rates across many exchanges. cryptowatch has some other exchanges listed aswell and nice plotting tools. bitcointicker realtime market ticker. coinigy professional crypto trading platform (30 day free, 0.054BTC/mo) blockchain.info viewer, wallet provider and blockchain api blockr.io blockchain viewer and api bitpay easy bitcoin integration provider
Community
reddit/bitcoin reddit/btc bitcointalk forums bitcoin.com forum
Channel ##bitcoin on freenode irc server 
Knowledge:
bitcoin core sourcecode on github
bitcoin whitepaper by Satoshi Nakamoto (pdf)
Bitcoin, Freedom, and the Future of Finance? by Bhagwan Chowdhry, Professor of Finance at UCLA Anderson, joined us for an IDFC-U discussion in which he explained why he believes Bitcoin is just the beginning.
Wired 2015 Bitcoin by Andreas Antonopoulos
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Satoshi Nakamoto Nominated for Nobel Prize

This is an automatic summary, original reduced by 56%.
Bhagwan Chowdhry, a professor of finance at UCLA, has nominated Satoshi Nakamoto, the creator of Bitcoin, for a Nobel prize in economics.
The invention of bitcoin - a digital currency - is nothing short of revolutionary.
Beyond demonstrating the possibility of creating a reliable digital currency, Satoshi Nakamoto's Bitcoin Protocol has spawned exciting innovations in the FinTech space by showing how many financial contracts - not just currencies - can be digitized, securely verified and stored, and transferred instantaneously from one party to another.
Not only will Satoshi Nakamoto's contribution change the way we think about money, it is likely to upend the role central banks play in conducting monetary policy, destroy high-cost money transfer services such as Western Union, eliminate the 2-4% transactions tax imposed by intermediaries such as Visa, MasterCard and Paypal, eliminate the time-consuming and expensive notary and escrow services and indeed transform the landscape of legal contracts completely.
The Nobel committee can easily buy bitcoins for the award money from any reputed online Bitcoin exchange and transfer it to him instantaneously.
A very early bitcoin transaction suggests that the bitcoin address 1HLoD9E4SDFFPDiYfNYnkBLQ85Y51J3Zb1 likely belongs to him.
Summary Source | FAQ | Theory | Feedback | Top five keywords: Bitcoin#1 Nakamoto#2 transfer#3 banks#4 such#5
Post found in /Economics.
NOTICE: This thread is for discussing the submission topic only. Do not discuss the concept of the autotldr bot here.
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Prof.Bhagwan Chowdhry addresses Section C Professor Bhagwan Chowdhry and Dr Viral V Acharya Lunch Talk: Bitcoin, freedom and the future of finance Bhagwan Chowdhry on Connecting Migrant Workers to Jobs, Episode 25 of bit.ly/BhagwanKeLiye with Akshat Mittal

(2003) "Some Evidence that a Tobin Tax on Foreign Exchange Transactions may Increase Volatility", European Finance Review, 7, 481-510 Chowdhry, Bhagwan. (2002) "Information Aggregation, Security Design and Currency Swaps", Journal of Political Economy , 110, 609-633 Chowdhry, Bhagwan. Bhagwan Chowdhry also points out that “the consumers will be big beneficiaries and indeed the poor and marginal sections of the society will reap the benefits of financial and social inclusion”. Bitcoin seems to be entering a golden age after quite a few dark years. When it was created, the banking sector was very wary of it, while Notable among the advisors are Prof Bhagwan Chowdhry of UCLA Anderson, who is also an advisor to Stellar Development Foundation, and Stani Kulechov, CEO of EthLend. Traders- first approach: The current landscape of the crypto exchanges is like the wild wild west where market manipulation, front-running and overall mismanagement are quite common Professor Bhagwan Chowdhry, who had nominated Satoshi Nakamoto's name even said that he can accept the award and deliver the award acceptance speech on Nakamoto's behalf. Although White Paper for Bitcoin was presented on this date in 2008, bitcoin.org domain name was registered a couple of months prior to it on 18th August 2008. Prof. Bhagwan Chowdhry . Some of you maybe know this man, Prof. Bhagwan Chowdhry, professor of Finance at UCLA Anderson School. In November 2016, he proposed Satoshi Nakamoto, the inventor of Bitcoin and blockchain technology, as the nominee for 2016 Nobel Prize. “No, in fact, I am completely serious in suggesting Satoshi Nakamoto for the Prize.

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Prof.Bhagwan Chowdhry addresses Section C

Professor Bhagwan Chaudhary speaks about supporting research. Arnold Schwarzenegger This Speech Broke The Internet AND Most Inspiring Speech- It Changed My Life. Bhagwan Chowdhry started Financial Access at Birth (FAB), which aims to give every child born in the world an initial deposit of $100 in an online bank account so the next generation would have ... What is Price Action Trading (Bhav Bhagwan Che) - Duration: 15:43. Pivot Call 75,355 views. 15:43. 24/7 Live Bitcoin Algo Trading on Deribit Exchange (DeriBot) Bitcoin Trading Robots 171 watching. Prof.Bhagwan Chowdhry addresses Section C on the last day of the corporate finance course Bhagwan Chowdhry 222 views. 19:10. ... Banking on Bitcoin YouTube Movies. 2017 · Documentary; 1:23:41. Episode 10 of Bhagwan Ke Liye with Rajeshwar Upadhyaya - Duration: 14:56.

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